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EUR 10 billion of annual aid from France to poor countries, while France is poor.

Charity ...

" The Public Aid For Development (PAD) designates the public expenditure for the benefit of developing countries whose main purpose is to promote the economic development and the improvement of living conditions in the countries concerned. "

main tendue

" With nearly EUR 10 billion per year (9,348 million euros in 2011), France is the fourth-largest contributor of global official development assistance (ODA). It is the second largest contributor in percentage of gross national income (GNI), with 0.46 %. "

And yet, "according to the INSEE, France has about 8.6 million poor people, approximately 14 per cent of the population and 20 per cent of children.

During 2000-2009, the poverty rate of all the households has recorded a slight increase: +0.3 %, a trend which continues by the suite, from 7,382,000 poor in 2004 to 8,173,000 in 20094, and to 8,600,000 in 2010.

In 2008, 25 % of the employees earn less than 750 euros per month, and in 2010 there are 3,291,000 poor children in France. (1) "

And yet France allocated 9.348 billion euros to finance other countries. Africa is the first recipient of the French Public Aid For Development (55 %), and in particular the sub-saharan Africa (41 % ).

And yet the sub-saharan Africa does not develop despite this Public Aid in billions of euros! But where are these billions?

If we are to believe the French diplomacy, through its international cooperation, responsible for this aid, France will continue "an ambitious development policy, with objectives redefined. Three priorities will guide its action:

- The economic development of the countries who are in need, with counterpart in the respect of democratic requirements, the strengthening of the rule of law and the promotion of women's rights;

- In the second place, the security, because there can be no security in the duration without development, no development without security ;

- Finally, the preservation of the planet, including climate. " (2)

In the light of these priorities and since the time that France is devoted through the official development assistance we understand the magnitude of the disappointment.

Relatively to the first priority of the aid : If the conditionality that accompanies had to be truly applied, namely "the observance of democratic requirements, the strengthening of the rule of law and the promotion of women's rights", never this aid would have been granted! This aid financed countries with rulers putschists and who trample the human rights if they are not drug traffickers.

As to the "economic development" that the PAD is supposed support, it is a pious hope.

The African countries "benefiting" of this assistance are vegetating yet in the economic under-development and are dominated by regimes whre corruption and the misappropriation of public goods are a government sport.

That it is in the form of support direct or indirect to the public institutions, the aid is, itself, diverted. The national leaders of development projects financed by the PAD, are appointed to tap into the material and financial means for their own account.

The embezzlement of public funds is entered in the public morals. The political and administrative leaders are indeed "appreciated" to the fortune that they have diverted and, thanks to this fortune, they obtain the positions of influence, buy the voters, manipulate the elections and have the "political means" of their election and this thanks to development aid diverted and to funding complacent of international institutions supposedly assisting in the restoration of the "macroeconomic equilibrium".

Could it be considered that, in this area, the official development assistance is, itself, a blockage of development because it leads to the opposite effect to the expectations. It penalizes the "observance of democratic requirements and the strengthening of the rule of law" and continues to support the enslavement of peoples.

Moreover, it is often with this aid that the rulers maintain their peoples" in leaves ". With this help, they "feed", provide the basic needs of their peoples and then neutralize them. Without this PAD, they would have to account for on the management of national resources they are wasting and not serving the people. Because this last one cry very quickly famine and could threaten its corrupted governments.

As to the second priority of development assistance such as advocated by the French diplomacy, namely "security" ( "because there can be no security in the duration without development, and no development without security" ), there is no need to demonstrate its ineffectiveness with regard to what is happening precisely in the Sahelian countries for which this aid is provided since for about ten years.

Insecurity, terrorism, crime, drugs, hostages etc. . The area has never been so dangerous than nowadays. It might be that an important part of this Development Aid either aisle, indirectly, "help" the development of organized crime because those who precisely, in high-rise ,benefit of it are often not recommendable.

Finally with regard to the third priority of the French development aid, including "the preservation of the planet", there is no need to see that the desert is advancing in most Sahelian countries, that "the green belt "erected around the cities with millions of euros has become of the dunes, that rural populations whole rush towns (the aid has penalized their agricultural production and has even replaced it), that the cities of these countries, including the capitals are shanty towns ignored and that the irrational exploitation of natural resources poisoned the countries and their environment

So where will this help?

If one considers the structure of the French official development assistance in 2011, it is presented in the following way:

Composition using bilateral net:

- 37% of the funding of projects

- 16% for technical assistance

- 15% for the debt relief

- 7% in budget Aid

- 25% Other

Sectoral distribution of bilateral (PAD) :

- 16%: Education

- 2% health

- 16% : sustainable development

- 5% : Agriculture

- 12%: Support for growth

- 49%: other Sectors

It is enough to consider these percentages to understand the ineffectiveness of the French PAD. For this let us take an example of one of the countries which benefits of this Aid: Mauritania.

Regime under the dictatorship, 46% of its population lives below the poverty line, 26 per cent of underprivileged people without housing, 90% without foresight or social security, 75% of the unemployed are youth. 85 % of women without employment, 78 per cent of families living in the informal, 75% on international food aid, 90% of wealth in the hands of 5% of the population, 60% of illiterates , 78 for thousand of infant mortality, 0.6 human development index, administration corrupted to 99 %, policies embittered to 100%, officials at 100% indebted, merchants bankers-shysters, senators-traders, representative without an assembly, hospitals real institutes for terminal cases, pharmacies-shops, economy overindebted, deprived areas, police corrupted, army confiscated, students crammed, teachers slighted and miserable, families of divorced, children on the street, beggars in the avenues, imams pro-coup, justice slaved, company hostage, narcotic everywhere, flouted dignity, people trampled on, desert which advance. Stinking neighborhoods, shanty towns to open skies, media purchased, cigarettes daily bread, consciences purchased, petroleum revenues diverted, forged contracts, terrorists disguised, private public markets , public treasury looted…illegal parliament, elections flouted.3.5 Million inhabitants of poor in Mauritania in an under-developed country and yet the French APD launched the Roosters crow!

But it must be said that, curiously, Mauritania, with its 3.5 million poor is less to complain about because it receives a Public Aid to development of France which account, itself, a little less than 9 million poor people!

Curious isn't it? EUR 10 billion annually from french assistance to the countries under-developed then that France throws its workers to the street by closing of the industrial complex integers, that she suffers from huge deficits in its social systems then that with its 10 billion euros it could resolve its difficulties including social (including unemployment).

It is true as, it was said, that the rooster is the only animal that sings with the tabs in the mud. Charity begins with oneself.

That said, the author of this article knows that the Public Aid is intended not only to "assist" the poor countries but that it concretizes the strategy politico-economic of France and its "outreach" economic, industrial and cultural to the international scale.

But that is worth a Public Aid to development if it inoculates child against polio and gives him a chance to survive but who dies in the guerrillas with weapons supplied by France or its Western allies through its strategic alliances?

But that is worth a public development aid, if there is help and not development and if poverty is growing in France and in the countries it assists?

That is worth the development aid if, by return of investment, it's the western companies which benefit from the contracts for the purchase of goods and services that are launched in the framework of the "development projects" thanks to the public aid to development?

That is worth the public aid to development, if it is for the benefit to corrupted regimes in African countries which divert it, directly or indirectly, with all impunity. The donor is he not unaware of that situation?

That is worth a public development aid, supposed strengthening the radiance of France abroad then that of French and other "sans-papiers"(undocumented) sleep under bridges?

The wisdom, (not the one on the policy, which in France has more, taken in its ambitions electoralist) imposes to reinvest at least a part of the official development assistance in France to help those that are being laid off to tower of arm and which were closed the places of work ,(factories and companies of various sectors).

know that some economists picky, will endeavor to find in these remarks a rationality non-cartesian and invoke that the injection of the financial means of the aid to the development in the French economy would be a source of aggravation of inflation, either widespread increase of price and therefore an imbalance of macro-economic aggregates. They would prefer say yes to the IMF and nyet to the poor.

Other will think that my reasoning of national of the third-world is sadomasochistic and that it is to cut the grass under the feet of countries that need the help.

Certainly, the developing countries have a need for official development assistance but NOT that which continued to strengthen the misery and the despots. Certainly, the vaccine of a child, the hope of tomorrow is a priceless gift but would he survive to despotism and the conflicts triggered of regimes supported by that assistance and which send them to death, for bad causes

In the question of the public aid had development beyond the large economic theories and "jousting" annihilates-intellectuals, of the radiation of the nations and their ulterior interests, there is only one thing that counts: it is the suffering of peoples.

Whether you're suffering in sensitive urban areas in France (or the unemployment and its derivative, the banditry, murdering) or in the streets of Goma in RD Congo(where the misery and its derivative: the guerrillas,, murdering), the human suffering is identical.

Then with its EUR 10 billion of annual, French official development assistance , to the international, is a stab in the water, at least for those whom it is intended. Its redeployment is an emergency not in its level but in its procedures for granting that it does not reinforce to despotic regimes and countries poorly governed in the name of "radiation" of France.

Otherwise, the Public Aid of France must go to the poor of France. Is it, not more wise to employ an unemployed person at home that make live a despot among the others. It is a matter of survival of each other.

Pr ELY Mustapha

Footnotes

[ 1] http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/pauvret%c3%a9_en_france#cite_note-2

[ 2] http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/enjeux-internationaux/aide-au-developpement-et/dispositifs-et-enjeux-de-l-aide-au/l-aide-publiq

The formulas which are destroying the world

 

imagesSince the "weapons of mass destruction", which  have justified the invasion of Iraq and the execution of Saddam Hussein and who have never been found, it is to the search for other ways to invade other countries in the Middle East and elsewhere, strategy requires.

The United States have beautiful scrape since 2001, no valid formula has yet been found allowing the destruction of a country.

It must be said that the other Malin who was blowing in the ears of Bush son, the formulas destructive  is "out of the office": Mr. Donald Rumsfeld. The same people who said  : " There are a lot of people who linked and get away with it, and that's just a fact."

Also in the meantime to find the correct formula which will trigger their attacks, the American leaders have invented a colorful concept: the red line!

And so all the radars secret and non-secret, the satellites and the drones are seeking to find a "red line" somewhere.

Today it is the turn of Syria. And the formula is any found: "chemical weapons, red line". And hop! Deployment of the armada in the Mediterranean and beyond, squats of all military airports of allied countries (often in spite of themselves) under the gaze hagard of the American taxpayer who track his money steal in shells!

But what does it matter, it is the formula "preposterous" that account! And for the find the NSA, the CIA, the DOD etc. is not sufficient, it must call trigger a "verbose"  media supported a talkfest military and put them all in the mouth of a President who will, solemnly pronounced, in a formula shock. And the turn is played. And this even if the said Pray has had strong misgivings about its capacity to understand what he is doing. Thus, in respect of his own book  Georges W. Bush said: "I have written a book. This will come as quite a shock to some. They didn't think I could read, much less write"

In fact the American foreign policy is nothing other than a alchemy which distills formulas whose only result is not to understand but to create explosions. The essential thing is to try the formula to the image of the "thinking" of Colin Powell:

"You don't know what you can get away with until you try".Then to find out how one kills goes to war!

You'll be well in tense of corpses but this is part of the alchemy, following the formula of Donald Rumsfeld : "Death  has a tendency' to encourage a depressing view of war . " Just depressing, non-deterrent!

And for the Americans a war that is in fact the opportunity to test their alchemy.

Then to invade a country nothing better than to find the "formula" ideal which will gather around the idea of using violence. This has become even a art in the disinformation and which could be defined in the following way: "find a fair formula that can make fear to those who without the be are predisposed to become following the doctoring of violence they have suffered". A formula which makes "tilt" and who would put the aggressor in the right to attack.

George W. Bush proudly clarion call was: "Every nation in every region now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists".

Although not created institutionally, there is well a large department of belligerent formulas. There is  compoed by the adviser to the President, the heads of department of Defense and the heads of agencies of the internal and external security.

It is very likely that the formula shock , the most sought after currently at meetings of the American President,  is well known.” Who has a formula-shock to attack Syria?

Saddam had the "weapons of mass destruction", Bechar has gas. But did he use it? Regardless, Saddam had "weapons of mass destruction", he does not more employed.

What is essential is the formula, not that of the gas, that one of the President.

Pr ELY Mustapha

The ingredients of a revolt from the inside



 
I-Tunisian revolution from the inside: the day the Jasmine flowers in winter. 
 
Jasmine spreads its fragrant flowers in spring and ending the beautiful fragrant nights of Tunisia during the hot summer nights. And yet the jasmine flowers, a winter time for a revolution. The “revolt of Jasmin”, like Jasmine has taken root in its soil. The ingredients of the revolt Tunisian only be explained by what happened to his land: the Tunisian society.

i) The situation in Tunisia before January 14, 2011 
 
The situation prior to this date has been spread by all the world’s media. A dictator, a corrupt ruling family, a police, a confiscation of freedoms. Image “classic” very well known in Tunisia. An image currents Tunisian opposition at home and abroad and several organizations of human rights conveyed in many years. It is this image which today in the media and other media around the world is used to explain “the revolution of Jasmin.” But it is really an imperfect image of what really led to the “Tunisian spring.”
Indeed, the roots of the rebellion lie in several factors it would be wrong to reduce exclusively political or economic justification. The reasons are much deeper than that and are rooted in social concerns that only an internal analysis can illuminate.
First economically justify the economic situation as the root of the revolt would be a paradox if one considers the economic performance of Tunisia in recent decades. The Global Report 2010-2011 Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Global has ranked the Tunisian economy in terms of global competitiveness in the global ranking 32nd out of 139 countries (report available here)
“Tunisia retains the lead in North Africa, up eight places to fill in the 32nd place (out of 139 countries). The country is effectively . Government institutions remain its main strength, with a high level of security (14th) and an education system which ensures good quality of education (22nd) and this despite the fact that enrollment in institutions of secondary education and universities are quite weak, respectively (53rd and 69th place in the CGI).
At the same time, Tunisia has a domestic market of goods and services relatively efficiently. Despite the crisis, the country has improved its macroeconomic stability since the last evaluation. Inflation has been reduced and the savings rate increased while the budget deficit remained stable at about 3 percent. And while public debt has increased, it remains manageable. This result is commendable in light of the recent deterioration in global macroeconomic stability during the recession. “(Report 2010-2011 World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness, Geneva. Switzerland. 2010).
How then to explain such a revolt in an economically stable country run by competent technocrats who defied economic stability by the recent global financial crisis that has struck down the major industrialized countries (including USA)
So the answer is to look elsewhere. We can not find her through “image-shots” be they economic or political one country but in what has become an entire vision of a country’s development. A vision that has accused a “deviation” which was already beginning to emerge from the eighties.
This deviation was illustrated by the promotion of a society of consumerism. And this through a banking system that led to household debt (1), lower-level university education leading to a fall in the level of training of young graduates (2) flowing in a labor market demanding and subject to a monopoly of families and lobbies (3).
The combination of these latent factors was the powder keg to which the political factors mentioned above were fired.

1) household indebtedness: over-consumption and commercial lobbying

Economically it all began in the early eighties when the banking system has developed under the leadership of governments imbued with a rampant liberalization of banking and financial system, an all-out credit policy. Households rushed to a flowering of forms of credit that banks put at their disposal to onerous conditions reported at their repayment capacity. A catch-all called “consumer credit”, the main and complementary (which ranged over tens of years), ranging from home loans, credit education credit through the car and the uncountable “money for personal reasons” and were often at the entrances and other “recommendations” personal.
Household debt would increase further with the arrival in the Tunisian market of four sources of consumption: computers, internet, telecommunications and supermarkets.
Already over-indebted by years of home loans that could not cover their property investment due to the boom of construction materials in the 2000s, the Tunisian became increasingly indebted to the banking system to the tune of extensions and other additional credits that principal and interest are paid salaries. All public sector employees, the State being the largest employer in Tunisia were often indebted to three-quarters of their salary despite legislation restricting the direct debit on wages for the repayment of loans.
In this debt because of a home loan in the long run, the Tunisians were seen trapped in the “car for everyone”. Advocated by the policy as to provide economic means for their movement, the concept of “the car for all” covered it a true alliance between the lobbies of car dealers in Tunisia and the Tunisian banks. These cars give credit to households who commanded necessarily the car at the dealership and that the bank pays the latter’s price “mortgaging” the wages of the household. The buyer could not discuss the price of the car, let alone negotiate the various interest and other fees that the bank will deduct a monthly salary, which must be domiciled with her.
But the plight of households did not stop there. In fact the cars were delivered by dealers of manufacturing and quality very reprehensible. As noted in the Tunisian their own cars were delivered to “third choice”, of poor quality both in their mechanical in structure and finish. Hence an additional investment in spare parts, engines and other accessories from the first month of release of the vehicle. The cars delivered by dealers that brand were manufactured in some European countries (Spain, ex-Eastern) and especially for consumption and other African nations had neither the consumer nor the institutional means policies to defend against domestic lobbies (including car dealers) and their Western. Tunisia and consumer protection, although supposed to have an organization, has never excelled in this area.
Caught up in a car bought at high prices (despite the easing of policy “4″ horses for the middle class, quickly diverted to benefit high-income households) on bank loan, used in the first months of use and subject to disbursement permanent spare parts which are also the real monopoly companies lobbies of spare parts and other car accessories, the Tunisian way to let all his income.
During the 2000s, came the “wave” of computerization and again accused of Household Spending a major hit through the “lending” bank for the purchase of computer and other consumables that through the channels of commerce monopolized overwhelmed the market. The famous bank loan for the computer to “1000″ dinars was even heavier by the introduction of the internet where subscriptions often ridiculous speeds (64Kb) sold were very expensive by one or two suppliers that had dictated the market and their law.
Then came what was really on their knees to households: the cost of telecommunications. Indeed, the introduction of mobile phones has had such a “boom” in Tunisia everyone into debt to acquire its mobile (personal loan, bank loan), for example the Nokia 2005 (known as the “3310 “), now considered an antique was sold, with subscriptions by the first mobile operator to 770 dinars (equivalent to 600 U.S. dollars) through a bank loan
But the debt would become exponentially with the staggering increase of “mobile park” in Tunisia. Child, adolescent, adult, each strutted with a laptop if not two or three laptops prelude “dual chip” that would still be costly for both scholarships.
But the tool itself does not predict that the visible part of the iceberg. It was then the “prepaid” or households left much of their income. The “portable” had become so indispensable that it represented a financial burden greater than the household spend on other items of expenditure (health , culture, leisure etc.).. The weight of the load due to telecommunications increased daily, the impoverished household.
The final blow came in late, with the installation in Tunisia super stores. Hypermarkets (Carrefour, Champion, Giant …)
Long confined to the supply with the shopkeeper in the area and small areas, the Tunisians were all at once rushed to the supermarkets who did all of a sudden appeared. Some remember the huge rush to the supermarket popular “Crossroads”, the first opening day, which presaged the bulimic behavior of consumers.
Indeed, from a supply circuit and supplies to the extent of these means in price and quality offered by the shopkeeper in the area and the small area, the Tunisian consumer has been in a frantic race to the consumption. Consumption strongly encouraged by the government (through bank loans, bank overdrafts to households), for the media and advertising and the sales and supermarkets which offered a thousand forms of consumer credit. Such a deployment of energy through the promotion of installment sales, which had certainly taken off in the early 80′s including the furnishing of homes, had reached the last five top highlights the fact that the “owners” of hypermarkets were other members of the ruling family. And while a pumping system of household resources was established. And this leads to over-indebtedness of households. A debt that would be one of the major ingredients in preparing social unrest at the base of the revolt in Tunisia.
Households with three-quarters of their income confiscated by the banks or vendors installment had entered a state of latent crisis. And so much more than any policy of the Tunisian government has come to find solution to the indebtedness of households like what happened in France (eg The law Neiertz of 1989 and Law Borloo, in 2003 and recently Law No. 2010-737 of 1 July 2010 to reform the Consumer Credit)
On the other hand, companies leasing subsidiaries of banks had over-indebted companies, particularly new and young entrepreneurs who have financed their activities and their equipment on leasing. Hence their precarious economic situation. The public system of contracts and orders have been locked in favor of a “handful of individuals’ and companies gravitating to the bosom of power, the new promoters were struggling to gain market share.
Faced with an authoritarian regime with strong interests in banks, in supermarkets and other channels of production and distribution, the Tunisian debt is submitted to all the dictates and commercial banking. And this led to an explosive situation but silent. The impact on the life of the household would seriously suffer.
While suffering the effects of the high cost of living, household Tunisian lived his “crisis” internal. This crisis resulted in a “denial” to a life of fulfillment for a race to self-sufficiency in material mortgage. So everything was subject to uncertainty. The household for lack of means of sacrifice and foremost on what allowed him to “blow”. Spending on culture and recreation expenses were no longer part of its budget. This renunciation was done at the expense of its own internal and external balance. Internally, the overheating in the family relationship was coupled, externally, uncertainty about the future. The continued growth of litigation in the courts was the most immediate expression.

2) A rebellious youth: devaluation, unemployment and coercion
 
Households lacking resources, could not provide the most long-term studies for their children who themselves felt the futility of it cope with rising unemployment.
The first who had to suffer the economic situation of households and firms was therefore youth. Yet the state continued free education in all public sectors of education from primary to tertiary. He had developed a system of “microcredit” for the benefit of young entrepreneurs through a bank of solidarity and encouraged technology centers.
However, the effort by the state, found himself absorbed by the very specific situation which confronted the youth. Neither the free education or micro-financing or development of technology centers could compensate for the lack of a vision for the youth that was sorely lacking at the state and explains the current unemployment of young people was the spark of what happened, the famous January 14.
In addition to the above factors, youth unemployment is due to several factors that have been dormant but are crucial.

Devaluation degrees 
 
The first of these is the decline in the level of training to higher education. So the university has spilled on the labor market of young “graduates” whose training was inadequate. Recruiting companies already dropper, looking for strong skills and qualifications not only their opened their doors for good reason.
This “devaluation” of the training that began in the late ninety is due to two factors. The first is institutional and the second is “ministerial”.
Institutionally and in front of the rapidly growing number of students, the state embarked on a policy of setting up schools, colleges and institutes all-out without taking into account the quality or the future future graduates. The system dumped on the market thousands of graduates in all disciplines leading to a “devaluation” of qualifications to recruiters who were trying to set conditions of employment requires the highest qualifications for positions that do not require.
At the institutions themselves, the teachers, not following the influx of students, was overwhelmed and the quality of education is greatly affected at all university levels. The third cycle had become real gas plants, and teachers did not know where to turn to guide the thousands of research. Hence briefs and arguments that are made hastily and that looked like readback of “cut and paste” from web pages to scientific work. Many teachers lack motivation have given up and are no longer only confirm the situation.

Success rate of 99% 
 
“Ministerial,” the political left “rotting” the situation through the recent ministers of higher education that have exploited higher education in a Career Vision and maintaining them at their posts. The education policy of the state had become a way of perpetuating some ministers at the expense of the interests of the nation.
Thus, one of the ministers who had distinguished himself in the writing of several books praising the all-out qualities of the ousted president, had striven, during his presence at the head of the Ministry of Higher Education, to believe the former president, Ben Ali, the success rate in higher education was approximately 99%
And this minister doing anything to prove this percentage through the “performances” of his department did not hesitate to influence the presidents and heads of educational institutions to “recover” the maximum number of students by examination boards. This is also reflected by a “lax” wanted in relation to the granting of grades by teachers who were under the influence of heads of agencies appointed by the Minister for that purpose. Indeed, the appointment of deans of institutions and obeyed this criterion of allegiance to the policy of 99% success.
Higher education p√Ętissait already declining at the secondary level where overzealous teachers subject to the policy of their department gave the tray historical notes such as the famous 20/20 philosophy, which granted the press “official “was proudly echoes.
This results in a catastrophic situation for the quality of teaching and the value of diplomas. Integer promotions, graduates in this way were dropped on the labor market, with a background far below expectations. The teachers themselves have to suffer because these graduates “back in higher education as teachers and perpetuate mediocrity” academic “and notoriously criticized. The selection boards of different grades of higher education were themselves themselves subject to this policy influence, complacency and mediocrity. So much so in fact that many candidates in these contests (assistantships, project management assistant and mastery conference) could no longer stand for these competitions because of their customization and their lack of independence.
So for over a decade or so, higher education, in particular, has suffered the damaging effects of this “policy” is not for nothing in graduate unemployment and their inability to find work with to Business selective and oriented competition. The state has curiously understood this, and tried through some administration including vocational training and employment of the unemployment level by running the famous formations “2121″ of wanting to give graduates unemployed an “additional training” to enable them to find work. In addition it has a large number of disabled graduates and added to their material deprivation, this policy has produced results far below expectations. Indeed, this training that lasted a few weeks only added an extra layer and did not solve the unemployment problem. They even perversion graduates saw himself as the beneficiary formed in areas that brought him there now and that are sometimes at odds with his basic training. And graduates in natural sciences are trained in information technology and communication or management so on. And that was just “stagnate” contingents of unemployed in the hallway of unemployment and in which new graduates more and more engulfed.
Graduate unemployment is not simply a matter of absorption by the labor market, or lack of micro-credit, but a matter of skill and scientific training that the educational institution has failed to deliver during these recent years because of “political” career led by ministers who have succeeded in recent years at the head of the department of higher education and scientific research.
The government develops a policy of employment-oriented classic while boosting the company so they hired (tax relief for businesses, premiums for employment, permanent contracts etc.). By the scientific training and qualification of the graduates do not realize the “gap” that has opened between job requirements and skills.
The situation was then that entire households found themselves indebted to the material and financial support of educated youth who, at the end of the course should provide them economic support, alas, mortgaged by unemployment.
This situation is already feeling the household “workers” of the great cities of the north (with revenues hypothecated but certainly stable, paid employment and part of the middle class) would undermine the towns and villages across the country where families whole living with limited resources rely heavily on the support of their children throughout their schooling. And they become graduates were caught in the poverty of their families and the lack of a job they can support themselves. But what further aggravated the situation was still the lack of future prospects for young people who not only did not see things improve but was a spectator in order to plunder the resources of the country, a ruling family that the help of police coercion to counteract any reaction to his crime.
It is therefore clear that if the revolt was born in a town within the country that is not the result of a chance, it is within the country that the system has done the most damage.


3) monopoly and siphoning: Economy of bondage 
 
When looking at financial flows bank devoted to the consumption we see that these flows had two characteristics. They are more concerned northern cities, but more importantly, they deprived the rest of the country of funding.
Banks had parasitized the circuit wage public. Indeed, virtually all state officials, regardless of rank or function, had contracted loans from the banking system. The salaries of public officials of the state is stable and fixed term was a real “gold mine” for banks that were paying them with blows of interests and commissions gradually depleting debt.
Indeed, credit car had a handicap, because the car (“third choice”, see above ) would grab the early months of additional spending and devalue over time, she mortgaged along the bank of the borrower’s income.
The mortgage was no less a handicap, since borrowers receive loans for the construction hit a standstill in the construction of habitats often oversized in relation to their housing need if not caught in the midst of the exponential growth of materials construction and labor. Then the vicious cycle of requests for “additional funds” and the waltz of “foreclosures” incurred by the banks for repayment and the disputes never ended.
As to credit studies, disappointment due to youth unemployment added to the discomfort of households went into debt for an uncertain future. This situation is more worse in deprived areas and rural areas where families had high expectations of solarization of their children as economic support.

Frustration 
 
The banking system has contributed to “enslavement” of Tunisia. And policy loans to households that took off in the eighties helped to bring the “Tunisian” in the chain of consumption and the mortgaged property.
Political power promoting the use of credit and encouraging the banking system has probably had (at first) will “of equipment and housing” households, but this has led a very cynical servitude of the household and its retention in the chains of dependence that would dictate the behavior of the Tunisian up by force and fear. Machiavellian attitude that the government did not say his name but why the Tunisian against any injustice he has suffered has remained “silent”.
Here’s how.
Tunisian medium cities (archetype of the Tunisian society active) mainly occupied positions and public and private employment in public administration and business. It was therefore the “kingpin” of a middle class that would be put in chains of debt. And the head of household had a monthly basis the number of drafts (checks or collateral) to pay on its borrowings that would enforce the bank’s wages. And he knows that Tunisian law protects an extremely rigorous interests of the bank. Thus the non-payment of bills simply drove to the confiscation of property acquired (car, house, equipment) and its auction. And the banks did their work thoroughly bailiffs notaries. The formal notice, the notice of nonpayment were all at the expense of the borrower. And a network of Usher was accredited banks to do so. But with bills to pay added the widespread practice of “check guarantee” that the law forbade yet but that all businesses selling on credit not only accepted but required of the borrower. This caused the issuer to deposit checks, was totally thank you to the lender. As a means of payment for the NSF is severely repressed by Tunisian law, which also devotes a whole section of its penal provisions.
Thus over-indebted, with the end of each month a sword of Damocles hanging over his head, while Tunisia was captured to its drafts and checks are paid. Otherwise it is the confiscation by the bank provided all that he has acquired in installments. His house, his car and its equipment. And this trauma caused the Tunisian-based cost-that is costing his salary would submit to the constraints of its service to avoid losing their jobs or benefits associated with them. Some are making very small, others being forgotten and the majority deal with this dependence was silent. Dumb not to lose his salary. But was it just the salary? This was the life of the household.
Indeed, the courts are full of cases of broken families because of the “bankruptcy” of the household head but also the confiscation of property acquired in installments. The banks sold auction habitats difficult by families built or acquired great sacrifice on their income. Both the justice that the police were contributing to this situation.

Pr ELY Mustapha 

A day of a Terrorist

Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?” 

 
Early Morning when he got out of the seeming difficulty of cloth he used as a mattress on the floor of the hut sheet which was to shelter him, his two younger brother and sister and their mother, he had still aches from yesterday, and the unspeakable bitterness haunted him mouth. He averted his eyes automatically members of his family huddled against each other to escape the cold. They occupied, transistors, small mat on the corner patched the least exposed to the wind that shook the house.
He got up as usual to the first call of the muezzin. Dawn was breaking and already he began to curse his miserable condition and the thought that kept him awake well into the night. The little puny arm protruding from the cover skin covering his family, however, attracted his attention … He gently took him back under the blanket and felt, all of a sudden, a rebellion deaf go to his throat. -How can he bear the misery of her own? How, throughout his sleepless night, he rehashed what he had told his little brother, “Big Brother, I’m hungry, I want something to eat … I eat a little bread this morning and you’re long gone and you brought us nothing .. “.
He had promised to get out of rations. But the tears came to my eyes the little brother did not escape. He knew, indeed, that it appeared to return empty-handed still when he had fallen asleep.
That evening, he had emerged but had taken the path of the mosque. It was for him, in poverty, a refuge where, on an empty stomach, he began to meditate and to implore the blessings of God.
That evening, he met a newcomer, a new character he did not know one of the regulars at the mosque. He greeted upon entering the mosque, as it should, these then sat in a corner and waited for the Imam arrives to begin the evening prayer.
Its appearance, like that of all the regulars the mosque of the very poor neighborhood thrown into the outskirts of the city, was to see his condition. Clothes threadbare and patched sandals thousand times.
He felt that someone was looking, he turned and saw the newcomer who was staring intently and invited him to join him on the large prayer rug he had made. He joined not without some misgivings. Newcomers were rare, as was also everything in this mosque. As far as he can remember, the object was most recently the timing of the fasting month of Ramadan in the year 1420 of the Hegira, which was graciously sent by the Ministry of Islamic Affairs and now dangling in yellow wall in defiance such as large patches of loose paint, gravitation.
He greeted the person who invited him and sat next to him. A silence which was soon interrupted by his host. “Thank you for joining him there, I’m new here and I do not know anyone yet and I see at your local knowledge, you’re a regular at the mosque.” He did not understand how it could be useful to him and inquired about it.
The character kept him in something like this: “my brother, I want to know people of faith who are supportive to change that society. We are victims of this society of corruption and we must take what is ours, with the help of God. ”
The words of this “preacher” unexpected rang in his ears like a gong. An alarm that goes off.
How did he explain that? He was buried as an aspiration which has been revealed by the words of this stranger. He was not used to this kind of talk, but rather than any act of resignation when we were doing had to undergo his punishment in the hereafter. In this world, all wrongdoers will be punished by God when the time comes. Seek revenge by itself is disbelief and exposes the worst of divine sanctions. That’s what he always taught. And yet, he had heard that the law of retaliation in Islam … There were pricked curiosity and engage in dialogue: 

– Dear preacher “what belongs to us” and that does not belong to God? And he who touches what is God’s will suffer the wrath in the hereafter. We humans, we have nothing. 

– Brother, everything belongs to God, that’s right, including ourselves. However, we are the guardians in this world. And we must ensure its preservation and its just distribution. We need to account before God. But what do we notice? Unbelievers make what they want while true Muslims like you are deprived of what is yours. 

– But God will punish them … 

– sure, and his punishment will have no equal, but not exclusive of the punishment of men. Has not God in his 
Holy Quran lays down the rules and punishment of wrongdoers and criminals 

– So he therefore left to men the power to make their own justice. And so each of us must do justice, because each of us is a member of the unwavering foundation of Muslim society. 

– Each of us must do justice? But this is the case of the State … 

– You see what the state has become. A place where corruption, theft of your property is not even punished. This means that the state is powerless and with you, if you do not respond and do not take what is yours with God’s help. 

you do not take what belongs to you with the help of God “, this phrase still echoes in his brain … He did not understand it too well, but it was like a response to something that the tap for a long time and was a deep carpet dan be poor. And all of a sudden the image of his little brother’s face wet with tears that tries to sleep tormented by hunger came to his mind: 

– But I, he said, I have nothing. My father left our home suddenly, leaving three children, including myself, on the arms of my poor mother, who struggled to feed us … I have nothing. 

– If, my brother, you have everything, but they all took thee … 

– Who “they” 

– Look around you, they are everywhere. And you see them every day. But he does not see you … 

– They do not see me? Why is it 

– you do not exist for them. 

It included more wrong. What wants to say this “preacher”? He would get up, when it held him by the sleeve and asked him to sit down. 

– God did not say “true believers are those whose hearts tremble when Allah is mentioned. And when His verses are recited to them, this increased their faith. And they put their trust in their Lord. “

– Although he said it … 

– So I saw in your eyes the light of the true believer. You are sensitive to what happens to you, but you want to respond that you can not do. 

– How do you know 

– Your plight shows that you would change it. And you can do for you are a godly man … Has not God said, “Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day do not ask you permission when it comes to fighting with their goods and persons . And Allah knows the righteous. “

– I have no property and my person is completely dedicated to the pursuit of sustenance for my family. And besides that my person would be in what you say we must fight and that is beyond belief 

– Everyone can fight at his level and by yourself … 

– If I devote myself to this struggle that will take care of my family 

– God will provide as it has not created a creature without the means to assure him his food …. 

– While my friend, but for my family, it is through me that assure … 

– And if you disappeared, which would you believe will provide for the sustenance of your family 

– I can not say but God is omniscient. He is the only one who knows the future. 

– Each of us has a mission on earth and no one can say when it begins and when it finishes … Are you ready to finish it out 

– I do not understand … 

– Are you ready to provide your family everything they want in exchange for your loss 

– Be more clear please. 

– Are you ready to take what is yours, with the help of God 

– But I ask for nothing. If not to support my family. 

– A sacrifice yourself for her? 

– Certainly. 

– We offer you to become a martyr to sacrifice yourself for a good cause … 

– sacrifice for the good cause 

– Yes, jihad, the struggle for triumph and glory of God. 

– Who will take care of my family 

– Do not worry, in exchange we offer the means to support your whole family for life … 

– Who 

– We are a group of dedicated people to Jihad. We are looking for eternal peace in heaven offering our lives for the glory of God. Are you ready to join us 

He was silent a moment before answering, as if he perceived more clearly what it wanted “preacher” … 

– I’ll think about. He said. And he rose. 

His host did not detain him. And he left the mosque. He had not taken a few steps outside he remembered that he had to provide for his family dinner. He hurried on to the mug of the butcher, hoping to find to beg some portions of meat and add to its slate, which he knew well, a long time, the amount. But the butcher was not meeting. “Butcher closed because of economic crime,” he could read on the front … 

It was not alone in misery. But neither the grocer nor the fish were unwilling to listen to reason against his complaints of credit. He had already harassed as he knew in advance the infinitesimal chance to soften towards him. Only one way, affected by his fate gave him a ticket with which he bought a small bottle of milk. So with empty pockets and hands clutching the bottle of milk, he was returning to the barracks that housed his poor family. As usual, all were asleep. Only her little brother was waiting for the wild-eyed, shivering with cold. He was so hungry that spasms shook all his limbs … he took him in her arms, covered it with a skirt of his robe worn and made her drink in small sips, the contents of the bottle of milk. It rocked him to sleep, then he placed under the cover of skin that covered already in a corner the rest of his family.
this gesture did not end a sentence sounds all at once in his ears: “Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. Sudden words that emerged from his unconscious … he kept the head in his hands and rushed out of the house … 

Twenty-five years of misery contained buried in his unconscious arose and took by storm the ramparts of his last conscious fatalistic. 

Yes “fatalistic,” he was. Every unfortunate event happened to him met him as a Stoic who found reward in the hereafter. So why complain or defend themselves? God will punish them all. Eternal punishment that many console from that of a short life. Yet the punishment in the hereafter will she end suffering on earth? And why those who are so wrong for him and so much misery do they not also suffer the penalty of men in this world
“Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. It’s still the sentence that left him when, having been run late in the area by gnawing at the bit he returned to bed at the back of his hut. 

Early morning when he left his miserable lodging, the preacher was waiting outside the door. He begged him to enter, but he would not. He knew what he wanted: “Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. He nodded. The “preacher” then handed her a package that went down near to his family slept. And followed by a light character. 

When awakened by the first rays of the sun filtered stinging from the roof of the house, the mother of the little family unpacked the curious package landed at her feet, she found money. “Where could it well come, she told herself. I will ask my son when he returns from the mosque. “

The mother waited all day. All evening. … Everyday life. His eldest never came back.
No one ever knew the truth about the disappearance of the eldest son of this poor family still lives in slums. No one but a preacher who came one evening in a mosque where he met a left-for-a corrupt society which was still in spite of his misery, someone who believed that his sacrifice could change things ….

And every night the little brother’s arm slid out of the narrow blanket that covered the small family, and he had no one to bring it back.

“Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. 

Pr ELY Mustapha

Poverty Policy

An attempt to understand … otherwise

Is there a “poverty policy
Curious question, isn't it? 

However, this issue is not just a figment of the imagination. It is a concept that seems important to devise and determine in its definition to answer questions about the realities fleeting. Indeed, the current situation of countries such as Mauritania has to be approached with new concepts and instruments that are beyond the classic analysis. 

As for the analysis, we propose to establish the concept of “political poverty” through a definition and basic characteristics. 

If, indeed, considering the political its original definition, the question becomes more aberrant. The policy is “management of the city.” Poverty policy can therefore only poverty management of the city. What is poor is precisely what is incomplete and, literally and figuratively, “poor.”
Poverty policy may better understand the challenges of governance . If it is apprehended by the way in which policymakers can “better” rule, the “political poverty” can be seen as the lack of participation in the governance. 

Poverty is the state policy deprivation conceptual, strategic and institutional in which citizens are to meet their need to participate in the management of their country. 

There is currently no indicator to assess the level of” political poverty “ as a country we have invented the concept. We’re going to try. But already by adopting the definition we have given above, “political poverty” as economic poverty, will cover a broad spectrum of situations. Poverty policy tolerable, a liberal system, with extreme poverty policy of the people living below the subsistence level policy particularly in authoritarian and dictatorial regimes, to the “political poverty” down the new democracies The range is wide.
characteristics of poverty policy Poverty policy induces the same effects as the human and social economic poverty : frustration, marginalization, and lack revolt.
Poverty policy is favored by the existence of economic poverty who is involved through the concatenation of the citizen in a life of struggle for subsistence preventing him from participating in the political life in democratic countries, including underdeveloped.
In a non-democratic and contrary to economic poverty, the poverty policy is independent of the level of economic development. 

Can you provide an indicator of “political poverty” (IPP) 

This indicator (PPI) should be considered an important parameter is the degree of political activism the citizen and the nature of the system state policy. This political activism has several variants: a free activism as part of a democratic country, pluripartisan, activism packaged in a one-party rule, an underground activist in an authoritarian or dictatorial. 

Taking political variables necessary in political activity: availability, commitment, participation, part-partisan democracy … some countries that claim to be rich are in fact a political extreme poverty.
indicator of poverty and policy must be considered, like the Human Development Index (HDI) or the human poverty index (HPI) of UNDP, in assessing the level development of a country. The development is not just about economic growth. 

Thus defined, we can apply this concept to the situation in Mauritania 

Democracy was introduced in Mauritius, and Mauritania is now part of the country to democratic rule. But if democracy is a vector of struggle against the “political poverty” it is not the solution. Just as the correction of social inequalities helps fight against poverty but it does not solve. 

Currently in Mauritania poverty policy exists and takes on a specific. If one refers to the characteristics of poverty policy posed above, it is undeniable that this “political poverty” is rooted in three factors: 

– Relief from the original majority of citizens in political life,
– The current expectation of the people face the new rulers
– the interaction between economic poverty and poverty policy, 

I-Relief fundamental majority of citizens in politics 

In the second round of presidential elections in March 2007 of the 1,132,877 registered only 764,045 voted and only 706,705 votes were cast. In percentage terms this is 24% , on an estimated population of 3,177,388 people! And the President of the Republic was elected by 11.7% of the Mauritanian people (10.4% against for its competitor). 

Already at this level is the “political poverty” since 76% of the Mauritanian people, more than three quarters, did not participate in elections. The inflow to democracy is not the primary concern of citizens. This is in referring to the definition that was given the “political poverty” by the institutional deprivation was found in which the citizen wishing to express their vote . Unable to challenge the census, to reject the too short imparted to census authorities, denouncing the exclusion of Mauritanians abroad the vote and so on. A set of institutional handicaps in the transition accrurent this “political poverty” 

addition deprivation concept to formalize it and to overcome the distrust that have inspired him for decades electoral practices of the state. practices that have reduced the need for democratic a repressed frustration that manifested itself through the decrease in participation in recent elections.
II-The current expectation of the people face the new rulers 

The lack of political responsiveness of citizens to denounce the difficulties they experience particularly high cost of living, deprivation instability and domestic services (water, electricity), the decline in purchasing power, scandal and narcotics threats, mismanagement of public resources, economic and human, can only be explained by the effects of poverty policy . 

Poverty policy is reflected in a wait-that other countries would have been regarded as a silent protest or a boycott of institutions, or in Mauritania this wait is a deprivation of citizens who have strategic nor the political culture nor the proponents adequate frameworks, dynamic and active enabling them to act. Political parties which are assigned the roles of political leadership and awareness of citizens for the exercise of power does play no. They are more introverted to their members and all striving towards the conquest of power in which the citizen is a tenure electoral cyclical. 

The current situation in which there is the traditional opposition seems to have given up, aggravating poverty politics. And the citizen feels. 

Democracy, as mentioned, is an enabling environment for poverty reduction policy, but it can also be an aggravating factor when the political sphere has “earned” its legitimacy comes off sphere popular retreats into a bubble that works and is justified only by itself. While having immune , against the opposition in a trap of “leadership institutionalized” and “periodic consultations” that give the impression of playing a role. 

neutralization of the opposition and the legitimacy of power sitting on an old class already seen at work under a previous have thus aggravated the “political poverty” of the country and removed an important tool for citizens to meet a political need urgent. Not one to make its voice heard, but the right to be heard . The index of “political poverty” is greatly deteriorated. 

III-the interaction between economic poverty and poverty policy.

Poverty Policy in contrast to the economic poverty is not defined by the scarcity of goods or their absence ” / strong>. Poverty policy can be serious in a country of wealth. Just as this country has an authoritarian or dictatorial. Policy reduces poverty in freedom and democracy. However, even in the presence of these elements, poverty policy may remain permanently when the level of living does not allow them to go about occupations or political interest in politics … Completely taken by the search of livelihood, there are “poor politically”, but this is mainly due to their economic poverty. 

The case of Mauritania is illustrative of this situation here. The standard of living of people, some of which live below the subsistence level prevents them, despite the country’s democratic opening, to participate in political life. Or to listen to the political superstructure. “A hungry, they say has no ears.” 

The 2006 UNDP Human Development class Mauritania in the part “low human development” in the 153rd out of 177 countries Far behind the Comoros Islands and even Equatorial Guinea. 

Also, despite the nascent democracy, the hopes it engendered and the impulses it generated the fact remains that his handicap is basically in the improvement of living standards and welfare of populations which contributed to a deterioration in the index “poverty policy.” An index remains fundamentally dependent improvement in our country of the evolution of the economic poverty. 

Ultimately, the introduction of the concept of “political poverty”, allows a better understanding, through non-economic factors and not social, what disability democracy in our country. It seems to me innovative because it is the only way to spend an approach to governance that does not focus exclusively on the decision-making body, the rulers, but on the governed (citizens). The establishment of a poverty index policy for each country will help to better understand the reality of things. 

Pr ELY Mustapha

The lure of the International Monetary Fund

 ... Growth of underdevelopment.
 
Visiting, last month, Nouakchott and after a two-week mission, the  division chief of the IMF during a press conference said that the macroeconomic performance in 2010 have been generally satisfactory "and that" the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) amounted to 5.2% (in 2010) and, finally, for the same period the "rate of inflation has been contained 6.1% "


It's been long time since we wrote about the thundering declaration of the International Monetary Fund in Mauritania. With their share of "expected growth" for "good behavior of the economy," inflation "acceptable" to "positive outlook" and so on.;;. (See here: "Should we believe the IMF?" Or "Growth? What Growth?")

And we will not continue with this institution in his ratings inducing poor countries error on their economic situation and their fate and purposely “inflating the ankles of our leaders” recklessly incompetent (see our previous articles
on this blog). So we decided against this to use a simple intuitive approach based on economically common sense.
We'll just ask two questions: If there is growth (as stated by the IMF) what makes this growth happened? (I) and if there is growth, why there’s no developement?

Who realizes growth in Mauritania?

This "WHO" is the Alpha and Omega of following ideas.

Indeed, as already defined in our previous articles, the growth arises from the sum of value added of all economic units of a country. It follows the variations if the aggregation of these values ​​added called GDP (Gross Domestic Product), GNP (Gross National Product), RN (National Revenue), etc. But whatever the name, it should simply means that increase of these aggregations ( after correction by the rate of inflation for the period- usually one year), is the first indicator of growth. It’s the FMI Credo. And its perpetual error.

Take the opposite view of this reasoning: If there is growth, well should there be a combination of factors for its implementation. These are the factors of production of goods And services. And these factors include: capital and labor.

Let Capital factor aside, for three reasons: first, that wealth in Mauritania never been identified. The second is that this capital, if any, is diffuse and held by a small minority of the population of bankers and / or traders. The third most important reason is, even if  that capital exists the work stays  unproductive.
This third point is the key argument: Who works in Mauritania to generate growth? In other words,  is there any  economically active population to generate such growth?
Let  set first the definitions:

The participation rate is the ratio between the total labor force (employed and unemployed) and the population of working age.
The employment rate is the ratio between employed people and people of working age (15-64 years). The employment rate reflects the ability of an economy to utilize its manpower.
Statistically: Mauritania has (2010):  3. 205 060 inhabitants (World Bank)

Population under 15years  (2009):  41.0%
Population over 64 years (2009):  3.4%
Unemployment rate for men: 23.9%
Unemployment rate of women: 44%

On this basis:
There are 1314074.6 Children (-15yrs): no value added
There are 108 972.04 seniors (64 +): doubtful value added

So in total it is necessary to eliminate these two segments of the population count of the workforce (mainly, 1. 423 047 individuals.)
It remains then: 1782 013 individuals among which the workforce can be identified.

Applying the 67.9% unemployment rate (men and women) to the population of working age (15-64 years),  it would be 1,209,987 unemployed.
Then there are only 572 026 individuals who should be the population active.

But what kind of  activity?

Applying these percentages to the distribution of jobs by employer type (as reflected in the statistics of the Office for National Statistics for 2008), to the previous figure (572 026) and  keeping constant percentage (usually an increase for the year 2010), we obtain the following result: 


Employeur
%
Total
1.Gouvernment
12,3
70359,198
2.Parastatal
2,3
13156,598
3.Private corporates
11,3
64638,938
4.Individual / household
24,4
139574,344
5. Other ( informal sector )
49,8
284868,948

From the overall figure (572 026) should be subtracted sectors 1, 4 and 5, their  value added to the economy is either diffuse (non-market production of government), or with no reinvestment (impoverished households , informality). A total of 494,802 individuals. 

Then, There are only 77 223 individuals potentially working. These individuals are distributed among private companies and the Parastatal sector

 For private companies they operate mainly in commerce and services. As we know, these companies are held by about 20% of the employed population (ONS statistics). This approximation is correct because 20% of the number of employed persons (excluding informal) give a figure approaching the 57 431 individuals listed in the table above for private companies. This sector consists of a few traders and bankers who monopolize the national resources  (procurement, fishing ...), the rest are employees-real labor.

The fisheries sector is the monopoly of  lobbies, traders settled since the early nineties on the sector by successive regimes.
 Its value-added form of capital, returns to holders of individual fishing companies and fishing licenses, and not reinvested in productive economic sectors, but often the subject of transfers in foreign accounts. The value added of Fishing calculated in the GNP must be revised because the income from fishing is no benefit to people, but for the privileged. People working in the fishing sector specifically have only wage income, a minority of them owns the capital, the means of production and profits.

Remains the sector's production companies mining and marketing of natural resources (fisheries and mining) Parastatal (13 156 individuals with around 4500 permanent staff employed by SNIM).

So in the end and all calculations done: On 3,205,060 Mauritanian inhabitants, only 0.41% of them has a productive value added. This percentage of economic activity is found in the natural resource sector and mainly in the Parastatal.

Who is, then, making growth in Mauritania? The answer is:  0.41% of the population!

And it’s the natural resource sector which increases the GNP, and which on it the IMF indexes the evolution of economic growth!

The findings are then as follows:

-  The Mauritanian economy is living on an informal economy

- The added value is realized through the exploitation of natural resources,

- Only 0.41% of the population provides a value-added

- The economy is captured in the form of capital accumulation in the hands of lobbies of traders and bankers exporting resources with unproductive investment at the nation scale..

So as shown the economic reality is different than what stated by the IMF!  

IMF statements induce poor countries in error. They creates confusion between "growth" of an “annuity”(
Gross National Income) and  the economic and social development.

II- The growth and underdevelopment: the IMF in contradiction.

The majority of the Mauritanian population suffers from poverty and public infrastructure is crumbling amid a field of debris that covered the streets and avenues.

Our streets are filled with children and old beggars, our hospitals are open cemeteries, our national fleet is a collection of rusting hulks that smell of death, full nose ...

Viewed from outside, Mauritania has no industry that exports a competitive national product and generates employment and income.
We do not produce anything commercially or technologically that is worth being exported.
Yet the growth rate is estimated at 5.2% (2010), it was already 5.7 in 2007!
Yet we grow! Unbelievable. Who would have thought?
Pathetic, isn’t it? Outrageous.

Here is proof of the FMI incoherent economic discourse:

On March 15, 2010, following the IMF mission in Nouakchott and the deliberations of the Executive Board of IMF, Murilo Portugal, Deputy Managing Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors made the Acting following statement:

"The economic situation (in Mauritania) deteriorated sharply in 2008-09 as a result of both internal and external shocks. Real GDP has declined and the fiscal position has weakened. While inflation remained subdued, the current account deficit is high (12.7% of GDP) and international reserves cover only about two months of imports. "(Source: IMF, click here)
Compare with the statement of the IMF mission led by Mr. Dominique Guillaume Nouakchott from 8 to 20 March 2008

"The mission also reviewed the implementation of the program that continues to unfold in a satisfactory manner. All performance criteria and benchmarks for end-December 2007 were met. Macroeconomic developments in the fourth quarter of 2007 were broadly consistent with the objectives of the program despite a difficult environment. GDP growth non-oil has reached almost 6% over 2007 benefiting from the rebound in agricultural production and development of new mining projects. The level of external reserves has slightly exceeded the target set for late 2007. The budget deficit was kept within the limits set by the program. "(Source: IMF, click here)

Compare with the statements of the Chief of Mission in Nouakchott (2010):

"The, division chief of the IMF during a press conference said that the macroeconomic performance in 2010 were broadly satisfactory," and that "the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) s is $ 5.2% (in 2010) and, finally, for the same period the "rate of inflation was contained at 6.1%"
How past few months there is a situation where "all the performance criteria and benchmarks for end-December 2007 have been met" in a degraded situation (2008-2009), then a satisfactory situation (2010)?

The major economic aggregates would they hip-hop?

  That's the misinformation, a part of disinformation, our economy "encoders" have made a political gymnastics.

Since the famous "falsified" figures delivered to the IMF (which have cost us hundreds of millions of dollars because of the six-month postponement of debt relief) the biggest lie ahead was that of double-digit growth!

If economic growth results from the total production of all country’s goods and services during a given period, then it will be understood that in Mauritania growth is negative.
 Where are the goods and services in Mauritania would cause such growth to 5.7% and that of previous years?

In fact this figure is misleading and is about growth in the sense of "expansion of national income", that is to say, this "catch-all" in which shall include the income of the nation regardless of its from!

Growth is thus that of "national income" not that of the sum of value added economic units of the country and expressed through changes in real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (inflation adjusted) or nominal GDP (expressing the market value of goods and services produced by a country.).

So the considered growth is national income growth, not the national economy growth!

Indeed, economic growth, as calculated, is only quantitative variation of an aggregate economy, it is not synonymous with development.
The development is generally associated with growth, but there may be growth without development. This is the case of Mauritania where the growth rates shown here are only those of national income (national pension).

The real growth and the false growth

So if real economic growth reflects the quantitative variation, sustainable, self-sustaining and irreversible production of goods and services, false growth reflects the change in Mauritania quantitative unsustainable, self-sustained and reversible national income ( of oil revenues and other) for a minority that has long (and ever) planned its diversion to the detriment of development. The real growth is based on the production function and not the accumulation of national income (from rent).

This production function based on the use of production factors, labor and capital. Growth depends on the quantities of inputs available and how they are used.
The labor factor: growth is possible through an increase in the amount of available work or increase the quality of labor input.

The capital factor: growth appears through increased investments or improving the stock of capital available technique which allows a larger quantity of goods and services produced.
And finally, technical progress: that increases the productivity of factors of production used. Nearly half of economic growth is the fact that technical progress.

So in light of the foregoing (labor, capital, technology), where you see growth in Mauritania?
Prof. ELY Mustafa

Some references:

- Http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5467.htm
- Office for National Statistics (www.ons.mr)
-Http: / / www.carim.org/index.php?callContent=364&callCountry=1500 (especially for tables article Sidna Mohamed Saleh, The migration of Mauritanians and recent trends (2009))
- Http://www.statistiques-mondiales.com/mauritanie.htm
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ACCUEILEXTN/PAYSEXTN/AFRICAINFRENCHEXT/MAURITANIAINFRENCHEXTN/0,, menuPK: 469145 ~ pagePK: 141132 ~ piPK: 141109 ~ theSitePK: 469117.00. html