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The ingredients of a revolt from the inside

I-Tunisian revolution from the inside: the day the Jasmine flowers in winter. 
Jasmine spreads its fragrant flowers in spring and ending the beautiful fragrant nights of Tunisia during the hot summer nights. And yet the jasmine flowers, a winter time for a revolution. The “revolt of Jasmin”, like Jasmine has taken root in its soil. The ingredients of the revolt Tunisian only be explained by what happened to his land: the Tunisian society.

i) The situation in Tunisia before January 14, 2011 
The situation prior to this date has been spread by all the world’s media. A dictator, a corrupt ruling family, a police, a confiscation of freedoms. Image “classic” very well known in Tunisia. An image currents Tunisian opposition at home and abroad and several organizations of human rights conveyed in many years. It is this image which today in the media and other media around the world is used to explain “the revolution of Jasmin.” But it is really an imperfect image of what really led to the “Tunisian spring.”
Indeed, the roots of the rebellion lie in several factors it would be wrong to reduce exclusively political or economic justification. The reasons are much deeper than that and are rooted in social concerns that only an internal analysis can illuminate.
First economically justify the economic situation as the root of the revolt would be a paradox if one considers the economic performance of Tunisia in recent decades. The Global Report 2010-2011 Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Global has ranked the Tunisian economy in terms of global competitiveness in the global ranking 32nd out of 139 countries (report available here)
“Tunisia retains the lead in North Africa, up eight places to fill in the 32nd place (out of 139 countries). The country is effectively . Government institutions remain its main strength, with a high level of security (14th) and an education system which ensures good quality of education (22nd) and this despite the fact that enrollment in institutions of secondary education and universities are quite weak, respectively (53rd and 69th place in the CGI).
At the same time, Tunisia has a domestic market of goods and services relatively efficiently. Despite the crisis, the country has improved its macroeconomic stability since the last evaluation. Inflation has been reduced and the savings rate increased while the budget deficit remained stable at about 3 percent. And while public debt has increased, it remains manageable. This result is commendable in light of the recent deterioration in global macroeconomic stability during the recession. “(Report 2010-2011 World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness, Geneva. Switzerland. 2010).
How then to explain such a revolt in an economically stable country run by competent technocrats who defied economic stability by the recent global financial crisis that has struck down the major industrialized countries (including USA)
So the answer is to look elsewhere. We can not find her through “image-shots” be they economic or political one country but in what has become an entire vision of a country’s development. A vision that has accused a “deviation” which was already beginning to emerge from the eighties.
This deviation was illustrated by the promotion of a society of consumerism. And this through a banking system that led to household debt (1), lower-level university education leading to a fall in the level of training of young graduates (2) flowing in a labor market demanding and subject to a monopoly of families and lobbies (3).
The combination of these latent factors was the powder keg to which the political factors mentioned above were fired.

1) household indebtedness: over-consumption and commercial lobbying

Economically it all began in the early eighties when the banking system has developed under the leadership of governments imbued with a rampant liberalization of banking and financial system, an all-out credit policy. Households rushed to a flowering of forms of credit that banks put at their disposal to onerous conditions reported at their repayment capacity. A catch-all called “consumer credit”, the main and complementary (which ranged over tens of years), ranging from home loans, credit education credit through the car and the uncountable “money for personal reasons” and were often at the entrances and other “recommendations” personal.
Household debt would increase further with the arrival in the Tunisian market of four sources of consumption: computers, internet, telecommunications and supermarkets.
Already over-indebted by years of home loans that could not cover their property investment due to the boom of construction materials in the 2000s, the Tunisian became increasingly indebted to the banking system to the tune of extensions and other additional credits that principal and interest are paid salaries. All public sector employees, the State being the largest employer in Tunisia were often indebted to three-quarters of their salary despite legislation restricting the direct debit on wages for the repayment of loans.
In this debt because of a home loan in the long run, the Tunisians were seen trapped in the “car for everyone”. Advocated by the policy as to provide economic means for their movement, the concept of “the car for all” covered it a true alliance between the lobbies of car dealers in Tunisia and the Tunisian banks. These cars give credit to households who commanded necessarily the car at the dealership and that the bank pays the latter’s price “mortgaging” the wages of the household. The buyer could not discuss the price of the car, let alone negotiate the various interest and other fees that the bank will deduct a monthly salary, which must be domiciled with her.
But the plight of households did not stop there. In fact the cars were delivered by dealers of manufacturing and quality very reprehensible. As noted in the Tunisian their own cars were delivered to “third choice”, of poor quality both in their mechanical in structure and finish. Hence an additional investment in spare parts, engines and other accessories from the first month of release of the vehicle. The cars delivered by dealers that brand were manufactured in some European countries (Spain, ex-Eastern) and especially for consumption and other African nations had neither the consumer nor the institutional means policies to defend against domestic lobbies (including car dealers) and their Western. Tunisia and consumer protection, although supposed to have an organization, has never excelled in this area.
Caught up in a car bought at high prices (despite the easing of policy “4″ horses for the middle class, quickly diverted to benefit high-income households) on bank loan, used in the first months of use and subject to disbursement permanent spare parts which are also the real monopoly companies lobbies of spare parts and other car accessories, the Tunisian way to let all his income.
During the 2000s, came the “wave” of computerization and again accused of Household Spending a major hit through the “lending” bank for the purchase of computer and other consumables that through the channels of commerce monopolized overwhelmed the market. The famous bank loan for the computer to “1000″ dinars was even heavier by the introduction of the internet where subscriptions often ridiculous speeds (64Kb) sold were very expensive by one or two suppliers that had dictated the market and their law.
Then came what was really on their knees to households: the cost of telecommunications. Indeed, the introduction of mobile phones has had such a “boom” in Tunisia everyone into debt to acquire its mobile (personal loan, bank loan), for example the Nokia 2005 (known as the “3310 “), now considered an antique was sold, with subscriptions by the first mobile operator to 770 dinars (equivalent to 600 U.S. dollars) through a bank loan
But the debt would become exponentially with the staggering increase of “mobile park” in Tunisia. Child, adolescent, adult, each strutted with a laptop if not two or three laptops prelude “dual chip” that would still be costly for both scholarships.
But the tool itself does not predict that the visible part of the iceberg. It was then the “prepaid” or households left much of their income. The “portable” had become so indispensable that it represented a financial burden greater than the household spend on other items of expenditure (health , culture, leisure etc.).. The weight of the load due to telecommunications increased daily, the impoverished household.
The final blow came in late, with the installation in Tunisia super stores. Hypermarkets (Carrefour, Champion, Giant …)
Long confined to the supply with the shopkeeper in the area and small areas, the Tunisians were all at once rushed to the supermarkets who did all of a sudden appeared. Some remember the huge rush to the supermarket popular “Crossroads”, the first opening day, which presaged the bulimic behavior of consumers.
Indeed, from a supply circuit and supplies to the extent of these means in price and quality offered by the shopkeeper in the area and the small area, the Tunisian consumer has been in a frantic race to the consumption. Consumption strongly encouraged by the government (through bank loans, bank overdrafts to households), for the media and advertising and the sales and supermarkets which offered a thousand forms of consumer credit. Such a deployment of energy through the promotion of installment sales, which had certainly taken off in the early 80′s including the furnishing of homes, had reached the last five top highlights the fact that the “owners” of hypermarkets were other members of the ruling family. And while a pumping system of household resources was established. And this leads to over-indebtedness of households. A debt that would be one of the major ingredients in preparing social unrest at the base of the revolt in Tunisia.
Households with three-quarters of their income confiscated by the banks or vendors installment had entered a state of latent crisis. And so much more than any policy of the Tunisian government has come to find solution to the indebtedness of households like what happened in France (eg The law Neiertz of 1989 and Law Borloo, in 2003 and recently Law No. 2010-737 of 1 July 2010 to reform the Consumer Credit)
On the other hand, companies leasing subsidiaries of banks had over-indebted companies, particularly new and young entrepreneurs who have financed their activities and their equipment on leasing. Hence their precarious economic situation. The public system of contracts and orders have been locked in favor of a “handful of individuals’ and companies gravitating to the bosom of power, the new promoters were struggling to gain market share.
Faced with an authoritarian regime with strong interests in banks, in supermarkets and other channels of production and distribution, the Tunisian debt is submitted to all the dictates and commercial banking. And this led to an explosive situation but silent. The impact on the life of the household would seriously suffer.
While suffering the effects of the high cost of living, household Tunisian lived his “crisis” internal. This crisis resulted in a “denial” to a life of fulfillment for a race to self-sufficiency in material mortgage. So everything was subject to uncertainty. The household for lack of means of sacrifice and foremost on what allowed him to “blow”. Spending on culture and recreation expenses were no longer part of its budget. This renunciation was done at the expense of its own internal and external balance. Internally, the overheating in the family relationship was coupled, externally, uncertainty about the future. The continued growth of litigation in the courts was the most immediate expression.

2) A rebellious youth: devaluation, unemployment and coercion
Households lacking resources, could not provide the most long-term studies for their children who themselves felt the futility of it cope with rising unemployment.
The first who had to suffer the economic situation of households and firms was therefore youth. Yet the state continued free education in all public sectors of education from primary to tertiary. He had developed a system of “microcredit” for the benefit of young entrepreneurs through a bank of solidarity and encouraged technology centers.
However, the effort by the state, found himself absorbed by the very specific situation which confronted the youth. Neither the free education or micro-financing or development of technology centers could compensate for the lack of a vision for the youth that was sorely lacking at the state and explains the current unemployment of young people was the spark of what happened, the famous January 14.
In addition to the above factors, youth unemployment is due to several factors that have been dormant but are crucial.

Devaluation degrees 
The first of these is the decline in the level of training to higher education. So the university has spilled on the labor market of young “graduates” whose training was inadequate. Recruiting companies already dropper, looking for strong skills and qualifications not only their opened their doors for good reason.
This “devaluation” of the training that began in the late ninety is due to two factors. The first is institutional and the second is “ministerial”.
Institutionally and in front of the rapidly growing number of students, the state embarked on a policy of setting up schools, colleges and institutes all-out without taking into account the quality or the future future graduates. The system dumped on the market thousands of graduates in all disciplines leading to a “devaluation” of qualifications to recruiters who were trying to set conditions of employment requires the highest qualifications for positions that do not require.
At the institutions themselves, the teachers, not following the influx of students, was overwhelmed and the quality of education is greatly affected at all university levels. The third cycle had become real gas plants, and teachers did not know where to turn to guide the thousands of research. Hence briefs and arguments that are made hastily and that looked like readback of “cut and paste” from web pages to scientific work. Many teachers lack motivation have given up and are no longer only confirm the situation.

Success rate of 99% 
“Ministerial,” the political left “rotting” the situation through the recent ministers of higher education that have exploited higher education in a Career Vision and maintaining them at their posts. The education policy of the state had become a way of perpetuating some ministers at the expense of the interests of the nation.
Thus, one of the ministers who had distinguished himself in the writing of several books praising the all-out qualities of the ousted president, had striven, during his presence at the head of the Ministry of Higher Education, to believe the former president, Ben Ali, the success rate in higher education was approximately 99%
And this minister doing anything to prove this percentage through the “performances” of his department did not hesitate to influence the presidents and heads of educational institutions to “recover” the maximum number of students by examination boards. This is also reflected by a “lax” wanted in relation to the granting of grades by teachers who were under the influence of heads of agencies appointed by the Minister for that purpose. Indeed, the appointment of deans of institutions and obeyed this criterion of allegiance to the policy of 99% success.
Higher education p√Ętissait already declining at the secondary level where overzealous teachers subject to the policy of their department gave the tray historical notes such as the famous 20/20 philosophy, which granted the press “official “was proudly echoes.
This results in a catastrophic situation for the quality of teaching and the value of diplomas. Integer promotions, graduates in this way were dropped on the labor market, with a background far below expectations. The teachers themselves have to suffer because these graduates “back in higher education as teachers and perpetuate mediocrity” academic “and notoriously criticized. The selection boards of different grades of higher education were themselves themselves subject to this policy influence, complacency and mediocrity. So much so in fact that many candidates in these contests (assistantships, project management assistant and mastery conference) could no longer stand for these competitions because of their customization and their lack of independence.
So for over a decade or so, higher education, in particular, has suffered the damaging effects of this “policy” is not for nothing in graduate unemployment and their inability to find work with to Business selective and oriented competition. The state has curiously understood this, and tried through some administration including vocational training and employment of the unemployment level by running the famous formations “2121″ of wanting to give graduates unemployed an “additional training” to enable them to find work. In addition it has a large number of disabled graduates and added to their material deprivation, this policy has produced results far below expectations. Indeed, this training that lasted a few weeks only added an extra layer and did not solve the unemployment problem. They even perversion graduates saw himself as the beneficiary formed in areas that brought him there now and that are sometimes at odds with his basic training. And graduates in natural sciences are trained in information technology and communication or management so on. And that was just “stagnate” contingents of unemployed in the hallway of unemployment and in which new graduates more and more engulfed.
Graduate unemployment is not simply a matter of absorption by the labor market, or lack of micro-credit, but a matter of skill and scientific training that the educational institution has failed to deliver during these recent years because of “political” career led by ministers who have succeeded in recent years at the head of the department of higher education and scientific research.
The government develops a policy of employment-oriented classic while boosting the company so they hired (tax relief for businesses, premiums for employment, permanent contracts etc.). By the scientific training and qualification of the graduates do not realize the “gap” that has opened between job requirements and skills.
The situation was then that entire households found themselves indebted to the material and financial support of educated youth who, at the end of the course should provide them economic support, alas, mortgaged by unemployment.
This situation is already feeling the household “workers” of the great cities of the north (with revenues hypothecated but certainly stable, paid employment and part of the middle class) would undermine the towns and villages across the country where families whole living with limited resources rely heavily on the support of their children throughout their schooling. And they become graduates were caught in the poverty of their families and the lack of a job they can support themselves. But what further aggravated the situation was still the lack of future prospects for young people who not only did not see things improve but was a spectator in order to plunder the resources of the country, a ruling family that the help of police coercion to counteract any reaction to his crime.
It is therefore clear that if the revolt was born in a town within the country that is not the result of a chance, it is within the country that the system has done the most damage.

3) monopoly and siphoning: Economy of bondage 
When looking at financial flows bank devoted to the consumption we see that these flows had two characteristics. They are more concerned northern cities, but more importantly, they deprived the rest of the country of funding.
Banks had parasitized the circuit wage public. Indeed, virtually all state officials, regardless of rank or function, had contracted loans from the banking system. The salaries of public officials of the state is stable and fixed term was a real “gold mine” for banks that were paying them with blows of interests and commissions gradually depleting debt.
Indeed, credit car had a handicap, because the car (“third choice”, see above ) would grab the early months of additional spending and devalue over time, she mortgaged along the bank of the borrower’s income.
The mortgage was no less a handicap, since borrowers receive loans for the construction hit a standstill in the construction of habitats often oversized in relation to their housing need if not caught in the midst of the exponential growth of materials construction and labor. Then the vicious cycle of requests for “additional funds” and the waltz of “foreclosures” incurred by the banks for repayment and the disputes never ended.
As to credit studies, disappointment due to youth unemployment added to the discomfort of households went into debt for an uncertain future. This situation is more worse in deprived areas and rural areas where families had high expectations of solarization of their children as economic support.

The banking system has contributed to “enslavement” of Tunisia. And policy loans to households that took off in the eighties helped to bring the “Tunisian” in the chain of consumption and the mortgaged property.
Political power promoting the use of credit and encouraging the banking system has probably had (at first) will “of equipment and housing” households, but this has led a very cynical servitude of the household and its retention in the chains of dependence that would dictate the behavior of the Tunisian up by force and fear. Machiavellian attitude that the government did not say his name but why the Tunisian against any injustice he has suffered has remained “silent”.
Here’s how.
Tunisian medium cities (archetype of the Tunisian society active) mainly occupied positions and public and private employment in public administration and business. It was therefore the “kingpin” of a middle class that would be put in chains of debt. And the head of household had a monthly basis the number of drafts (checks or collateral) to pay on its borrowings that would enforce the bank’s wages. And he knows that Tunisian law protects an extremely rigorous interests of the bank. Thus the non-payment of bills simply drove to the confiscation of property acquired (car, house, equipment) and its auction. And the banks did their work thoroughly bailiffs notaries. The formal notice, the notice of nonpayment were all at the expense of the borrower. And a network of Usher was accredited banks to do so. But with bills to pay added the widespread practice of “check guarantee” that the law forbade yet but that all businesses selling on credit not only accepted but required of the borrower. This caused the issuer to deposit checks, was totally thank you to the lender. As a means of payment for the NSF is severely repressed by Tunisian law, which also devotes a whole section of its penal provisions.
Thus over-indebted, with the end of each month a sword of Damocles hanging over his head, while Tunisia was captured to its drafts and checks are paid. Otherwise it is the confiscation by the bank provided all that he has acquired in installments. His house, his car and its equipment. And this trauma caused the Tunisian-based cost-that is costing his salary would submit to the constraints of its service to avoid losing their jobs or benefits associated with them. Some are making very small, others being forgotten and the majority deal with this dependence was silent. Dumb not to lose his salary. But was it just the salary? This was the life of the household.
Indeed, the courts are full of cases of broken families because of the “bankruptcy” of the household head but also the confiscation of property acquired in installments. The banks sold auction habitats difficult by families built or acquired great sacrifice on their income. Both the justice that the police were contributing to this situation.

Pr ELY Mustapha 

A day of a Terrorist

Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?” 

Early Morning when he got out of the seeming difficulty of cloth he used as a mattress on the floor of the hut sheet which was to shelter him, his two younger brother and sister and their mother, he had still aches from yesterday, and the unspeakable bitterness haunted him mouth. He averted his eyes automatically members of his family huddled against each other to escape the cold. They occupied, transistors, small mat on the corner patched the least exposed to the wind that shook the house.
He got up as usual to the first call of the muezzin. Dawn was breaking and already he began to curse his miserable condition and the thought that kept him awake well into the night. The little puny arm protruding from the cover skin covering his family, however, attracted his attention … He gently took him back under the blanket and felt, all of a sudden, a rebellion deaf go to his throat. -How can he bear the misery of her own? How, throughout his sleepless night, he rehashed what he had told his little brother, “Big Brother, I’m hungry, I want something to eat … I eat a little bread this morning and you’re long gone and you brought us nothing .. “.
He had promised to get out of rations. But the tears came to my eyes the little brother did not escape. He knew, indeed, that it appeared to return empty-handed still when he had fallen asleep.
That evening, he had emerged but had taken the path of the mosque. It was for him, in poverty, a refuge where, on an empty stomach, he began to meditate and to implore the blessings of God.
That evening, he met a newcomer, a new character he did not know one of the regulars at the mosque. He greeted upon entering the mosque, as it should, these then sat in a corner and waited for the Imam arrives to begin the evening prayer.
Its appearance, like that of all the regulars the mosque of the very poor neighborhood thrown into the outskirts of the city, was to see his condition. Clothes threadbare and patched sandals thousand times.
He felt that someone was looking, he turned and saw the newcomer who was staring intently and invited him to join him on the large prayer rug he had made. He joined not without some misgivings. Newcomers were rare, as was also everything in this mosque. As far as he can remember, the object was most recently the timing of the fasting month of Ramadan in the year 1420 of the Hegira, which was graciously sent by the Ministry of Islamic Affairs and now dangling in yellow wall in defiance such as large patches of loose paint, gravitation.
He greeted the person who invited him and sat next to him. A silence which was soon interrupted by his host. “Thank you for joining him there, I’m new here and I do not know anyone yet and I see at your local knowledge, you’re a regular at the mosque.” He did not understand how it could be useful to him and inquired about it.
The character kept him in something like this: “my brother, I want to know people of faith who are supportive to change that society. We are victims of this society of corruption and we must take what is ours, with the help of God. ”
The words of this “preacher” unexpected rang in his ears like a gong. An alarm that goes off.
How did he explain that? He was buried as an aspiration which has been revealed by the words of this stranger. He was not used to this kind of talk, but rather than any act of resignation when we were doing had to undergo his punishment in the hereafter. In this world, all wrongdoers will be punished by God when the time comes. Seek revenge by itself is disbelief and exposes the worst of divine sanctions. That’s what he always taught. And yet, he had heard that the law of retaliation in Islam … There were pricked curiosity and engage in dialogue: 

– Dear preacher “what belongs to us” and that does not belong to God? And he who touches what is God’s will suffer the wrath in the hereafter. We humans, we have nothing. 

– Brother, everything belongs to God, that’s right, including ourselves. However, we are the guardians in this world. And we must ensure its preservation and its just distribution. We need to account before God. But what do we notice? Unbelievers make what they want while true Muslims like you are deprived of what is yours. 

– But God will punish them … 

– sure, and his punishment will have no equal, but not exclusive of the punishment of men. Has not God in his 
Holy Quran lays down the rules and punishment of wrongdoers and criminals 

– So he therefore left to men the power to make their own justice. And so each of us must do justice, because each of us is a member of the unwavering foundation of Muslim society. 

– Each of us must do justice? But this is the case of the State … 

– You see what the state has become. A place where corruption, theft of your property is not even punished. This means that the state is powerless and with you, if you do not respond and do not take what is yours with God’s help. 

you do not take what belongs to you with the help of God “, this phrase still echoes in his brain … He did not understand it too well, but it was like a response to something that the tap for a long time and was a deep carpet dan be poor. And all of a sudden the image of his little brother’s face wet with tears that tries to sleep tormented by hunger came to his mind: 

– But I, he said, I have nothing. My father left our home suddenly, leaving three children, including myself, on the arms of my poor mother, who struggled to feed us … I have nothing. 

– If, my brother, you have everything, but they all took thee … 

– Who “they” 

– Look around you, they are everywhere. And you see them every day. But he does not see you … 

– They do not see me? Why is it 

– you do not exist for them. 

It included more wrong. What wants to say this “preacher”? He would get up, when it held him by the sleeve and asked him to sit down. 

– God did not say “true believers are those whose hearts tremble when Allah is mentioned. And when His verses are recited to them, this increased their faith. And they put their trust in their Lord. “

– Although he said it … 

– So I saw in your eyes the light of the true believer. You are sensitive to what happens to you, but you want to respond that you can not do. 

– How do you know 

– Your plight shows that you would change it. And you can do for you are a godly man … Has not God said, “Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day do not ask you permission when it comes to fighting with their goods and persons . And Allah knows the righteous. “

– I have no property and my person is completely dedicated to the pursuit of sustenance for my family. And besides that my person would be in what you say we must fight and that is beyond belief 

– Everyone can fight at his level and by yourself … 

– If I devote myself to this struggle that will take care of my family 

– God will provide as it has not created a creature without the means to assure him his food …. 

– While my friend, but for my family, it is through me that assure … 

– And if you disappeared, which would you believe will provide for the sustenance of your family 

– I can not say but God is omniscient. He is the only one who knows the future. 

– Each of us has a mission on earth and no one can say when it begins and when it finishes … Are you ready to finish it out 

– I do not understand … 

– Are you ready to provide your family everything they want in exchange for your loss 

– Be more clear please. 

– Are you ready to take what is yours, with the help of God 

– But I ask for nothing. If not to support my family. 

– A sacrifice yourself for her? 

– Certainly. 

– We offer you to become a martyr to sacrifice yourself for a good cause … 

– sacrifice for the good cause 

– Yes, jihad, the struggle for triumph and glory of God. 

– Who will take care of my family 

– Do not worry, in exchange we offer the means to support your whole family for life … 

– Who 

– We are a group of dedicated people to Jihad. We are looking for eternal peace in heaven offering our lives for the glory of God. Are you ready to join us 

He was silent a moment before answering, as if he perceived more clearly what it wanted “preacher” … 

– I’ll think about. He said. And he rose. 

His host did not detain him. And he left the mosque. He had not taken a few steps outside he remembered that he had to provide for his family dinner. He hurried on to the mug of the butcher, hoping to find to beg some portions of meat and add to its slate, which he knew well, a long time, the amount. But the butcher was not meeting. “Butcher closed because of economic crime,” he could read on the front … 

It was not alone in misery. But neither the grocer nor the fish were unwilling to listen to reason against his complaints of credit. He had already harassed as he knew in advance the infinitesimal chance to soften towards him. Only one way, affected by his fate gave him a ticket with which he bought a small bottle of milk. So with empty pockets and hands clutching the bottle of milk, he was returning to the barracks that housed his poor family. As usual, all were asleep. Only her little brother was waiting for the wild-eyed, shivering with cold. He was so hungry that spasms shook all his limbs … he took him in her arms, covered it with a skirt of his robe worn and made her drink in small sips, the contents of the bottle of milk. It rocked him to sleep, then he placed under the cover of skin that covered already in a corner the rest of his family.
this gesture did not end a sentence sounds all at once in his ears: “Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. Sudden words that emerged from his unconscious … he kept the head in his hands and rushed out of the house … 

Twenty-five years of misery contained buried in his unconscious arose and took by storm the ramparts of his last conscious fatalistic. 

Yes “fatalistic,” he was. Every unfortunate event happened to him met him as a Stoic who found reward in the hereafter. So why complain or defend themselves? God will punish them all. Eternal punishment that many console from that of a short life. Yet the punishment in the hereafter will she end suffering on earth? And why those who are so wrong for him and so much misery do they not also suffer the penalty of men in this world
“Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. It’s still the sentence that left him when, having been run late in the area by gnawing at the bit he returned to bed at the back of his hut. 

Early morning when he left his miserable lodging, the preacher was waiting outside the door. He begged him to enter, but he would not. He knew what he wanted: “Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. He nodded. The “preacher” then handed her a package that went down near to his family slept. And followed by a light character. 

When awakened by the first rays of the sun filtered stinging from the roof of the house, the mother of the little family unpacked the curious package landed at her feet, she found money. “Where could it well come, she told herself. I will ask my son when he returns from the mosque. “

The mother waited all day. All evening. … Everyday life. His eldest never came back.
No one ever knew the truth about the disappearance of the eldest son of this poor family still lives in slums. No one but a preacher who came one evening in a mosque where he met a left-for-a corrupt society which was still in spite of his misery, someone who believed that his sacrifice could change things ….

And every night the little brother’s arm slid out of the narrow blanket that covered the small family, and he had no one to bring it back.

“Are you ready to take what belongs to you, with God’s help?”. 

Pr ELY Mustapha

Poverty Policy

An attempt to understand … otherwise

Is there a “poverty policy
Curious question, isn't it? 

However, this issue is not just a figment of the imagination. It is a concept that seems important to devise and determine in its definition to answer questions about the realities fleeting. Indeed, the current situation of countries such as Mauritania has to be approached with new concepts and instruments that are beyond the classic analysis. 

As for the analysis, we propose to establish the concept of “political poverty” through a definition and basic characteristics. 

If, indeed, considering the political its original definition, the question becomes more aberrant. The policy is “management of the city.” Poverty policy can therefore only poverty management of the city. What is poor is precisely what is incomplete and, literally and figuratively, “poor.”
Poverty policy may better understand the challenges of governance . If it is apprehended by the way in which policymakers can “better” rule, the “political poverty” can be seen as the lack of participation in the governance. 

Poverty is the state policy deprivation conceptual, strategic and institutional in which citizens are to meet their need to participate in the management of their country. 

There is currently no indicator to assess the level of” political poverty “ as a country we have invented the concept. We’re going to try. But already by adopting the definition we have given above, “political poverty” as economic poverty, will cover a broad spectrum of situations. Poverty policy tolerable, a liberal system, with extreme poverty policy of the people living below the subsistence level policy particularly in authoritarian and dictatorial regimes, to the “political poverty” down the new democracies The range is wide.
characteristics of poverty policy Poverty policy induces the same effects as the human and social economic poverty : frustration, marginalization, and lack revolt.
Poverty policy is favored by the existence of economic poverty who is involved through the concatenation of the citizen in a life of struggle for subsistence preventing him from participating in the political life in democratic countries, including underdeveloped.
In a non-democratic and contrary to economic poverty, the poverty policy is independent of the level of economic development. 

Can you provide an indicator of “political poverty” (IPP) 

This indicator (PPI) should be considered an important parameter is the degree of political activism the citizen and the nature of the system state policy. This political activism has several variants: a free activism as part of a democratic country, pluripartisan, activism packaged in a one-party rule, an underground activist in an authoritarian or dictatorial. 

Taking political variables necessary in political activity: availability, commitment, participation, part-partisan democracy … some countries that claim to be rich are in fact a political extreme poverty.
indicator of poverty and policy must be considered, like the Human Development Index (HDI) or the human poverty index (HPI) of UNDP, in assessing the level development of a country. The development is not just about economic growth. 

Thus defined, we can apply this concept to the situation in Mauritania 

Democracy was introduced in Mauritius, and Mauritania is now part of the country to democratic rule. But if democracy is a vector of struggle against the “political poverty” it is not the solution. Just as the correction of social inequalities helps fight against poverty but it does not solve. 

Currently in Mauritania poverty policy exists and takes on a specific. If one refers to the characteristics of poverty policy posed above, it is undeniable that this “political poverty” is rooted in three factors: 

– Relief from the original majority of citizens in political life,
– The current expectation of the people face the new rulers
– the interaction between economic poverty and poverty policy, 

I-Relief fundamental majority of citizens in politics 

In the second round of presidential elections in March 2007 of the 1,132,877 registered only 764,045 voted and only 706,705 votes were cast. In percentage terms this is 24% , on an estimated population of 3,177,388 people! And the President of the Republic was elected by 11.7% of the Mauritanian people (10.4% against for its competitor). 

Already at this level is the “political poverty” since 76% of the Mauritanian people, more than three quarters, did not participate in elections. The inflow to democracy is not the primary concern of citizens. This is in referring to the definition that was given the “political poverty” by the institutional deprivation was found in which the citizen wishing to express their vote . Unable to challenge the census, to reject the too short imparted to census authorities, denouncing the exclusion of Mauritanians abroad the vote and so on. A set of institutional handicaps in the transition accrurent this “political poverty” 

addition deprivation concept to formalize it and to overcome the distrust that have inspired him for decades electoral practices of the state. practices that have reduced the need for democratic a repressed frustration that manifested itself through the decrease in participation in recent elections.
II-The current expectation of the people face the new rulers 

The lack of political responsiveness of citizens to denounce the difficulties they experience particularly high cost of living, deprivation instability and domestic services (water, electricity), the decline in purchasing power, scandal and narcotics threats, mismanagement of public resources, economic and human, can only be explained by the effects of poverty policy . 

Poverty policy is reflected in a wait-that other countries would have been regarded as a silent protest or a boycott of institutions, or in Mauritania this wait is a deprivation of citizens who have strategic nor the political culture nor the proponents adequate frameworks, dynamic and active enabling them to act. Political parties which are assigned the roles of political leadership and awareness of citizens for the exercise of power does play no. They are more introverted to their members and all striving towards the conquest of power in which the citizen is a tenure electoral cyclical. 

The current situation in which there is the traditional opposition seems to have given up, aggravating poverty politics. And the citizen feels. 

Democracy, as mentioned, is an enabling environment for poverty reduction policy, but it can also be an aggravating factor when the political sphere has “earned” its legitimacy comes off sphere popular retreats into a bubble that works and is justified only by itself. While having immune , against the opposition in a trap of “leadership institutionalized” and “periodic consultations” that give the impression of playing a role. 

neutralization of the opposition and the legitimacy of power sitting on an old class already seen at work under a previous have thus aggravated the “political poverty” of the country and removed an important tool for citizens to meet a political need urgent. Not one to make its voice heard, but the right to be heard . The index of “political poverty” is greatly deteriorated. 

III-the interaction between economic poverty and poverty policy.

Poverty Policy in contrast to the economic poverty is not defined by the scarcity of goods or their absence ” / strong>. Poverty policy can be serious in a country of wealth. Just as this country has an authoritarian or dictatorial. Policy reduces poverty in freedom and democracy. However, even in the presence of these elements, poverty policy may remain permanently when the level of living does not allow them to go about occupations or political interest in politics … Completely taken by the search of livelihood, there are “poor politically”, but this is mainly due to their economic poverty. 

The case of Mauritania is illustrative of this situation here. The standard of living of people, some of which live below the subsistence level prevents them, despite the country’s democratic opening, to participate in political life. Or to listen to the political superstructure. “A hungry, they say has no ears.” 

The 2006 UNDP Human Development class Mauritania in the part “low human development” in the 153rd out of 177 countries Far behind the Comoros Islands and even Equatorial Guinea. 

Also, despite the nascent democracy, the hopes it engendered and the impulses it generated the fact remains that his handicap is basically in the improvement of living standards and welfare of populations which contributed to a deterioration in the index “poverty policy.” An index remains fundamentally dependent improvement in our country of the evolution of the economic poverty. 

Ultimately, the introduction of the concept of “political poverty”, allows a better understanding, through non-economic factors and not social, what disability democracy in our country. It seems to me innovative because it is the only way to spend an approach to governance that does not focus exclusively on the decision-making body, the rulers, but on the governed (citizens). The establishment of a poverty index policy for each country will help to better understand the reality of things. 

Pr ELY Mustapha