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The ingredients of a revolt from the inside

Posted on 5:14 AM by ELY Mustapha



 
I-Tunisian revolution from the inside: the day the Jasmine flowers in winter. 
 
Jasmine spreads its fragrant flowers in spring and ending the beautiful fragrant nights of Tunisia during the hot summer nights. And yet the jasmine flowers, a winter time for a revolution. The “revolt of Jasmin”, like Jasmine has taken root in its soil. The ingredients of the revolt Tunisian only be explained by what happened to his land: the Tunisian society.

i) The situation in Tunisia before January 14, 2011 
 
The situation prior to this date has been spread by all the world’s media. A dictator, a corrupt ruling family, a police, a confiscation of freedoms. Image “classic” very well known in Tunisia. An image currents Tunisian opposition at home and abroad and several organizations of human rights conveyed in many years. It is this image which today in the media and other media around the world is used to explain “the revolution of Jasmin.” But it is really an imperfect image of what really led to the “Tunisian spring.”
Indeed, the roots of the rebellion lie in several factors it would be wrong to reduce exclusively political or economic justification. The reasons are much deeper than that and are rooted in social concerns that only an internal analysis can illuminate.
First economically justify the economic situation as the root of the revolt would be a paradox if one considers the economic performance of Tunisia in recent decades. The Global Report 2010-2011 Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Global has ranked the Tunisian economy in terms of global competitiveness in the global ranking 32nd out of 139 countries (report available here)
“Tunisia retains the lead in North Africa, up eight places to fill in the 32nd place (out of 139 countries). The country is effectively . Government institutions remain its main strength, with a high level of security (14th) and an education system which ensures good quality of education (22nd) and this despite the fact that enrollment in institutions of secondary education and universities are quite weak, respectively (53rd and 69th place in the CGI).
At the same time, Tunisia has a domestic market of goods and services relatively efficiently. Despite the crisis, the country has improved its macroeconomic stability since the last evaluation. Inflation has been reduced and the savings rate increased while the budget deficit remained stable at about 3 percent. And while public debt has increased, it remains manageable. This result is commendable in light of the recent deterioration in global macroeconomic stability during the recession. “(Report 2010-2011 World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness, Geneva. Switzerland. 2010).
How then to explain such a revolt in an economically stable country run by competent technocrats who defied economic stability by the recent global financial crisis that has struck down the major industrialized countries (including USA)
So the answer is to look elsewhere. We can not find her through “image-shots” be they economic or political one country but in what has become an entire vision of a country’s development. A vision that has accused a “deviation” which was already beginning to emerge from the eighties.
This deviation was illustrated by the promotion of a society of consumerism. And this through a banking system that led to household debt (1), lower-level university education leading to a fall in the level of training of young graduates (2) flowing in a labor market demanding and subject to a monopoly of families and lobbies (3).
The combination of these latent factors was the powder keg to which the political factors mentioned above were fired.

1) household indebtedness: over-consumption and commercial lobbying

Economically it all began in the early eighties when the banking system has developed under the leadership of governments imbued with a rampant liberalization of banking and financial system, an all-out credit policy. Households rushed to a flowering of forms of credit that banks put at their disposal to onerous conditions reported at their repayment capacity. A catch-all called “consumer credit”, the main and complementary (which ranged over tens of years), ranging from home loans, credit education credit through the car and the uncountable “money for personal reasons” and were often at the entrances and other “recommendations” personal.
Household debt would increase further with the arrival in the Tunisian market of four sources of consumption: computers, internet, telecommunications and supermarkets.
Already over-indebted by years of home loans that could not cover their property investment due to the boom of construction materials in the 2000s, the Tunisian became increasingly indebted to the banking system to the tune of extensions and other additional credits that principal and interest are paid salaries. All public sector employees, the State being the largest employer in Tunisia were often indebted to three-quarters of their salary despite legislation restricting the direct debit on wages for the repayment of loans.
In this debt because of a home loan in the long run, the Tunisians were seen trapped in the “car for everyone”. Advocated by the policy as to provide economic means for their movement, the concept of “the car for all” covered it a true alliance between the lobbies of car dealers in Tunisia and the Tunisian banks. These cars give credit to households who commanded necessarily the car at the dealership and that the bank pays the latter’s price “mortgaging” the wages of the household. The buyer could not discuss the price of the car, let alone negotiate the various interest and other fees that the bank will deduct a monthly salary, which must be domiciled with her.
But the plight of households did not stop there. In fact the cars were delivered by dealers of manufacturing and quality very reprehensible. As noted in the Tunisian their own cars were delivered to “third choice”, of poor quality both in their mechanical in structure and finish. Hence an additional investment in spare parts, engines and other accessories from the first month of release of the vehicle. The cars delivered by dealers that brand were manufactured in some European countries (Spain, ex-Eastern) and especially for consumption and other African nations had neither the consumer nor the institutional means policies to defend against domestic lobbies (including car dealers) and their Western. Tunisia and consumer protection, although supposed to have an organization, has never excelled in this area.
Caught up in a car bought at high prices (despite the easing of policy “4″ horses for the middle class, quickly diverted to benefit high-income households) on bank loan, used in the first months of use and subject to disbursement permanent spare parts which are also the real monopoly companies lobbies of spare parts and other car accessories, the Tunisian way to let all his income.
During the 2000s, came the “wave” of computerization and again accused of Household Spending a major hit through the “lending” bank for the purchase of computer and other consumables that through the channels of commerce monopolized overwhelmed the market. The famous bank loan for the computer to “1000″ dinars was even heavier by the introduction of the internet where subscriptions often ridiculous speeds (64Kb) sold were very expensive by one or two suppliers that had dictated the market and their law.
Then came what was really on their knees to households: the cost of telecommunications. Indeed, the introduction of mobile phones has had such a “boom” in Tunisia everyone into debt to acquire its mobile (personal loan, bank loan), for example the Nokia 2005 (known as the “3310 “), now considered an antique was sold, with subscriptions by the first mobile operator to 770 dinars (equivalent to 600 U.S. dollars) through a bank loan
But the debt would become exponentially with the staggering increase of “mobile park” in Tunisia. Child, adolescent, adult, each strutted with a laptop if not two or three laptops prelude “dual chip” that would still be costly for both scholarships.
But the tool itself does not predict that the visible part of the iceberg. It was then the “prepaid” or households left much of their income. The “portable” had become so indispensable that it represented a financial burden greater than the household spend on other items of expenditure (health , culture, leisure etc.).. The weight of the load due to telecommunications increased daily, the impoverished household.
The final blow came in late, with the installation in Tunisia super stores. Hypermarkets (Carrefour, Champion, Giant …)
Long confined to the supply with the shopkeeper in the area and small areas, the Tunisians were all at once rushed to the supermarkets who did all of a sudden appeared. Some remember the huge rush to the supermarket popular “Crossroads”, the first opening day, which presaged the bulimic behavior of consumers.
Indeed, from a supply circuit and supplies to the extent of these means in price and quality offered by the shopkeeper in the area and the small area, the Tunisian consumer has been in a frantic race to the consumption. Consumption strongly encouraged by the government (through bank loans, bank overdrafts to households), for the media and advertising and the sales and supermarkets which offered a thousand forms of consumer credit. Such a deployment of energy through the promotion of installment sales, which had certainly taken off in the early 80′s including the furnishing of homes, had reached the last five top highlights the fact that the “owners” of hypermarkets were other members of the ruling family. And while a pumping system of household resources was established. And this leads to over-indebtedness of households. A debt that would be one of the major ingredients in preparing social unrest at the base of the revolt in Tunisia.
Households with three-quarters of their income confiscated by the banks or vendors installment had entered a state of latent crisis. And so much more than any policy of the Tunisian government has come to find solution to the indebtedness of households like what happened in France (eg The law Neiertz of 1989 and Law Borloo, in 2003 and recently Law No. 2010-737 of 1 July 2010 to reform the Consumer Credit)
On the other hand, companies leasing subsidiaries of banks had over-indebted companies, particularly new and young entrepreneurs who have financed their activities and their equipment on leasing. Hence their precarious economic situation. The public system of contracts and orders have been locked in favor of a “handful of individuals’ and companies gravitating to the bosom of power, the new promoters were struggling to gain market share.
Faced with an authoritarian regime with strong interests in banks, in supermarkets and other channels of production and distribution, the Tunisian debt is submitted to all the dictates and commercial banking. And this led to an explosive situation but silent. The impact on the life of the household would seriously suffer.
While suffering the effects of the high cost of living, household Tunisian lived his “crisis” internal. This crisis resulted in a “denial” to a life of fulfillment for a race to self-sufficiency in material mortgage. So everything was subject to uncertainty. The household for lack of means of sacrifice and foremost on what allowed him to “blow”. Spending on culture and recreation expenses were no longer part of its budget. This renunciation was done at the expense of its own internal and external balance. Internally, the overheating in the family relationship was coupled, externally, uncertainty about the future. The continued growth of litigation in the courts was the most immediate expression.

2) A rebellious youth: devaluation, unemployment and coercion
 
Households lacking resources, could not provide the most long-term studies for their children who themselves felt the futility of it cope with rising unemployment.
The first who had to suffer the economic situation of households and firms was therefore youth. Yet the state continued free education in all public sectors of education from primary to tertiary. He had developed a system of “microcredit” for the benefit of young entrepreneurs through a bank of solidarity and encouraged technology centers.
However, the effort by the state, found himself absorbed by the very specific situation which confronted the youth. Neither the free education or micro-financing or development of technology centers could compensate for the lack of a vision for the youth that was sorely lacking at the state and explains the current unemployment of young people was the spark of what happened, the famous January 14.
In addition to the above factors, youth unemployment is due to several factors that have been dormant but are crucial.

Devaluation degrees 
 
The first of these is the decline in the level of training to higher education. So the university has spilled on the labor market of young “graduates” whose training was inadequate. Recruiting companies already dropper, looking for strong skills and qualifications not only their opened their doors for good reason.
This “devaluation” of the training that began in the late ninety is due to two factors. The first is institutional and the second is “ministerial”.
Institutionally and in front of the rapidly growing number of students, the state embarked on a policy of setting up schools, colleges and institutes all-out without taking into account the quality or the future future graduates. The system dumped on the market thousands of graduates in all disciplines leading to a “devaluation” of qualifications to recruiters who were trying to set conditions of employment requires the highest qualifications for positions that do not require.
At the institutions themselves, the teachers, not following the influx of students, was overwhelmed and the quality of education is greatly affected at all university levels. The third cycle had become real gas plants, and teachers did not know where to turn to guide the thousands of research. Hence briefs and arguments that are made hastily and that looked like readback of “cut and paste” from web pages to scientific work. Many teachers lack motivation have given up and are no longer only confirm the situation.

Success rate of 99% 
 
“Ministerial,” the political left “rotting” the situation through the recent ministers of higher education that have exploited higher education in a Career Vision and maintaining them at their posts. The education policy of the state had become a way of perpetuating some ministers at the expense of the interests of the nation.
Thus, one of the ministers who had distinguished himself in the writing of several books praising the all-out qualities of the ousted president, had striven, during his presence at the head of the Ministry of Higher Education, to believe the former president, Ben Ali, the success rate in higher education was approximately 99%
And this minister doing anything to prove this percentage through the “performances” of his department did not hesitate to influence the presidents and heads of educational institutions to “recover” the maximum number of students by examination boards. This is also reflected by a “lax” wanted in relation to the granting of grades by teachers who were under the influence of heads of agencies appointed by the Minister for that purpose. Indeed, the appointment of deans of institutions and obeyed this criterion of allegiance to the policy of 99% success.
Higher education pâtissait already declining at the secondary level where overzealous teachers subject to the policy of their department gave the tray historical notes such as the famous 20/20 philosophy, which granted the press “official “was proudly echoes.
This results in a catastrophic situation for the quality of teaching and the value of diplomas. Integer promotions, graduates in this way were dropped on the labor market, with a background far below expectations. The teachers themselves have to suffer because these graduates “back in higher education as teachers and perpetuate mediocrity” academic “and notoriously criticized. The selection boards of different grades of higher education were themselves themselves subject to this policy influence, complacency and mediocrity. So much so in fact that many candidates in these contests (assistantships, project management assistant and mastery conference) could no longer stand for these competitions because of their customization and their lack of independence.
So for over a decade or so, higher education, in particular, has suffered the damaging effects of this “policy” is not for nothing in graduate unemployment and their inability to find work with to Business selective and oriented competition. The state has curiously understood this, and tried through some administration including vocational training and employment of the unemployment level by running the famous formations “2121″ of wanting to give graduates unemployed an “additional training” to enable them to find work. In addition it has a large number of disabled graduates and added to their material deprivation, this policy has produced results far below expectations. Indeed, this training that lasted a few weeks only added an extra layer and did not solve the unemployment problem. They even perversion graduates saw himself as the beneficiary formed in areas that brought him there now and that are sometimes at odds with his basic training. And graduates in natural sciences are trained in information technology and communication or management so on. And that was just “stagnate” contingents of unemployed in the hallway of unemployment and in which new graduates more and more engulfed.
Graduate unemployment is not simply a matter of absorption by the labor market, or lack of micro-credit, but a matter of skill and scientific training that the educational institution has failed to deliver during these recent years because of “political” career led by ministers who have succeeded in recent years at the head of the department of higher education and scientific research.
The government develops a policy of employment-oriented classic while boosting the company so they hired (tax relief for businesses, premiums for employment, permanent contracts etc.). By the scientific training and qualification of the graduates do not realize the “gap” that has opened between job requirements and skills.
The situation was then that entire households found themselves indebted to the material and financial support of educated youth who, at the end of the course should provide them economic support, alas, mortgaged by unemployment.
This situation is already feeling the household “workers” of the great cities of the north (with revenues hypothecated but certainly stable, paid employment and part of the middle class) would undermine the towns and villages across the country where families whole living with limited resources rely heavily on the support of their children throughout their schooling. And they become graduates were caught in the poverty of their families and the lack of a job they can support themselves. But what further aggravated the situation was still the lack of future prospects for young people who not only did not see things improve but was a spectator in order to plunder the resources of the country, a ruling family that the help of police coercion to counteract any reaction to his crime.
It is therefore clear that if the revolt was born in a town within the country that is not the result of a chance, it is within the country that the system has done the most damage.


3) monopoly and siphoning: Economy of bondage 
 
When looking at financial flows bank devoted to the consumption we see that these flows had two characteristics. They are more concerned northern cities, but more importantly, they deprived the rest of the country of funding.
Banks had parasitized the circuit wage public. Indeed, virtually all state officials, regardless of rank or function, had contracted loans from the banking system. The salaries of public officials of the state is stable and fixed term was a real “gold mine” for banks that were paying them with blows of interests and commissions gradually depleting debt.
Indeed, credit car had a handicap, because the car (“third choice”, see above ) would grab the early months of additional spending and devalue over time, she mortgaged along the bank of the borrower’s income.
The mortgage was no less a handicap, since borrowers receive loans for the construction hit a standstill in the construction of habitats often oversized in relation to their housing need if not caught in the midst of the exponential growth of materials construction and labor. Then the vicious cycle of requests for “additional funds” and the waltz of “foreclosures” incurred by the banks for repayment and the disputes never ended.
As to credit studies, disappointment due to youth unemployment added to the discomfort of households went into debt for an uncertain future. This situation is more worse in deprived areas and rural areas where families had high expectations of solarization of their children as economic support.

Frustration 
 
The banking system has contributed to “enslavement” of Tunisia. And policy loans to households that took off in the eighties helped to bring the “Tunisian” in the chain of consumption and the mortgaged property.
Political power promoting the use of credit and encouraging the banking system has probably had (at first) will “of equipment and housing” households, but this has led a very cynical servitude of the household and its retention in the chains of dependence that would dictate the behavior of the Tunisian up by force and fear. Machiavellian attitude that the government did not say his name but why the Tunisian against any injustice he has suffered has remained “silent”.
Here’s how.
Tunisian medium cities (archetype of the Tunisian society active) mainly occupied positions and public and private employment in public administration and business. It was therefore the “kingpin” of a middle class that would be put in chains of debt. And the head of household had a monthly basis the number of drafts (checks or collateral) to pay on its borrowings that would enforce the bank’s wages. And he knows that Tunisian law protects an extremely rigorous interests of the bank. Thus the non-payment of bills simply drove to the confiscation of property acquired (car, house, equipment) and its auction. And the banks did their work thoroughly bailiffs notaries. The formal notice, the notice of nonpayment were all at the expense of the borrower. And a network of Usher was accredited banks to do so. But with bills to pay added the widespread practice of “check guarantee” that the law forbade yet but that all businesses selling on credit not only accepted but required of the borrower. This caused the issuer to deposit checks, was totally thank you to the lender. As a means of payment for the NSF is severely repressed by Tunisian law, which also devotes a whole section of its penal provisions.
Thus over-indebted, with the end of each month a sword of Damocles hanging over his head, while Tunisia was captured to its drafts and checks are paid. Otherwise it is the confiscation by the bank provided all that he has acquired in installments. His house, his car and its equipment. And this trauma caused the Tunisian-based cost-that is costing his salary would submit to the constraints of its service to avoid losing their jobs or benefits associated with them. Some are making very small, others being forgotten and the majority deal with this dependence was silent. Dumb not to lose his salary. But was it just the salary? This was the life of the household.
Indeed, the courts are full of cases of broken families because of the “bankruptcy” of the household head but also the confiscation of property acquired in installments. The banks sold auction habitats difficult by families built or acquired great sacrifice on their income. Both the justice that the police were contributing to this situation.

Pr ELY Mustapha 

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